Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Rates and Weeding Frequency on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on Vertisols in Toke Kutaye District

Gudina Soboksa Hunde, Habtamu Ashagre, Thomas Abraham

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i230169

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a crucial role in ensuring food security in Ethiopia. However, its production and productivity is constrained by weed infestation and inappropriate seed rate used. Hence, an experiment was conducted to determine the optimal seed rate and weeding frequency for bread wheat production on Vertisols in Toke Kutaye district during 2020 main cropping season. Treatments consisted of five levels of seed rates (75, 100, 125, 150, and 175kgha-1) and four levels of weeding frequency (zero weeding, once weeding (15DAE), twice weeding (15 and 45 DAE) and thrice weeding (15, 45 and 75 DAE). Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial combination replicated thrice. Results of the study revealed that the interaction of seed rate and weeding frequency significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced phenological and growth parameters except days reqired for 50% emergence and yield of bread wheat. Highest wheat biomass yield (11.03tha-1), grain yield (4.47tha-1) and straw yield (6.6tha-1)were obtained using 175kgha-1seed rate with thrice hand weeding. Highest relative yield loss (71.3%) was recorded from weedy plot with 75kgha-1seed rate, while the lowest loss (1.2%) was recorded at 175kgha-1seed rate with thrice hand weeding. Highest net benefit of ETB 73,170ha-1 , marginal rate of return 884.4% and value to cost ratio of ETB 8.34 per unit of investment was obtained from 175kgha-1 seed rate combined with thrice hand weeding. Therefore, use of 175kgha-1 seed rate with thrice hand weeding was found profitable, and recommended for bread wheat production in Toke Kutaye district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performance of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Influenced by Seed Rates and Weeding Frequency at Mutulu Kebele in Toke Kutaye District

Gudina Soboksa Hunde, Habtamu Ashagre, Thomas Abraham

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i230170

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major cereal crops in central high land of Ethiopia. However, its production and productivity is constrained by weed infestation and inappropriate seed rate used. Hence, an experiment was conducted to determine the optimal seed rate and weeding frequency for bread wheat production in Toke Kutaye district of West Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State during 2020 main cropping season. Treatments consisted of five levels of seed rates (75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 kgha-1) and four levels of weeding frequency (zero weeding, once weeding (15 DAE), twice weeding (15 and 45 DAE) and thrice weeding (15, 45 and 75 DAE). Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial    combination replicated thrice. Results of the study revealed that the interaction of seed  rate and weeding frequency significantly (P≤0.05) influenced phenological and growth parameters except days reqired for 50% emergence and yield of bread wheat. Highest  relative yield loss (71.3%) was recorded from weedy plot with 75 kgha-1 seed rate, while the lowest loss (1.2%) was recorded at 175 kgha-1seed rate with thrice hand weeding. Highest net benefit of ETB 73,170 ha-1 , marginal rate of return 884.4% and value to cost ratio of ETB  8.34 per unit of investment was obtained from 175 kgha-1 seed rate combined with thrice  hand weeding. Therefore, use of 175 kgha-1 seed rate with thrice hand weeding was found profitable, and recommended to be practiced by wheat growers of the study area and similar agro-ecologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Varieties to Different Blended NPSZnB Fertilizer Rates in Haro Limmu District, Western Ethiopia : A Pilot Study

Birhanu Wakgari, Tadesse Debele, Thomas Abraham

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 23-34
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i230171

Tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] plays a crucial role in achieving food and nutritional security in Ethiopia being predominant staple food. Lack of high yielding varieties suitable to the area and inadequate site-specific blended fertilizers are the major constraints to higher tef productivity. Hence, a field experiment was conducted during 2020 main cropping season to identify high yielding variety and determine economically feasible blended NPSZnB fertilizer rate at Farmers Training Center in Ucha Kebele, Haro Limmu district. Experiment included five different NPSZnB fertilizer rates (0, 50,100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and three Tef varieties (Negus, Tesfa and local). Treatments were factorially combined and laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results revealed that thousand seed weight of Tef was significantly influenced by main effect of varieties, blended NPSZnB fertilizer rates and their interactions. Panicle length, dry biomass yield, lodging index, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index of Tef were significantly (P<0.001) affected by main effect of blended NPSZnB fertilizer rates and the interactions of the two factors, while the panicle length, dry biomass yield, lodging index and grain yield, straw yield and harvest index of Tef were significantly (P<0.01; 0.05) affected by main effect of varieties respectively. Highest (118.20 cm) plant height, dry biomass yield (9. 64 t ha-1), straw yield (7.02 t ha-1), grain yield (2.62 t ha-1), thousand seed weight (0.42 t ha-1) and harvest index (27.1%) were recorded from Tesfa variety with 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate. Similarly, the highest (7.42 t ha-1), straw yield, dry biomass yield (9.76 t ha-1), grain yield (2.34 t ha-1), thousand seed weight (0.4 g) and panicle length (44.20 cm) were recorded from Tesfa variety with application of 200 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate and the highest total number of tillers (10.1) and effective number of tillers (9.7) were recorded with 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate. Grain yield of Tef showed increment by 91.22% with the application of 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 with Tesfa variety over the control. Highest net profit of ETB 83229.4 with marginal rate of return of 1553.71% was recorded from Tesfa variety with application of 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate. Therefore, farmers of the study area should use Tesfa variety based on the grain yield and net profitability benefits achieved with 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 fertilizer rate to enhance Tef production and productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical, Phytochemical and Toxicological Study of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Aerva javanica Roots

Mohammed Waqas, Peeyush Kumar Sharma, Mohammad Asif, Sandeep Yadav, Chandra Kala

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 35-40
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i230172

Aim: The study is aimed at determining the characters of roots of Aerva javanica (A.javanica) assessing acute oral toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of Aerva javanica.

Place and Duration of Study: the physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation was carried out at Faculty of Pharmacy, Maulana Azad University Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Acute Oral Toxicity was studied at Bilwal Medchem and Research Laboratory, Jaipur Rajasthan. The duration of study June 2021 – July 2021

Methodology: The pharmacognostical characters were evaluated in terms of organoleptic property, physico-chemical parameters, and preliminary phytochemical investigation. The acute oral toxicity was determined using the 423, OECD guideline for testing of chemical, acute toxic class method.

Results: The physico-chemical analysis revealed total ash; water soluble ash and, acid insoluble ash to be 6.36 ± 0.26%, 0.79 ±0.23 % and, 1.23 ± 0.34%. The water, alcohol and petroleum ether soluble extractive values were found to be 17.88± 3.54 %, 15.58 ± 1.13% and, 0.3 ± 0.13 %. The percentage yield of hydroalcoholic extract of root of A.javanica was found to be 24%. The phytochemical screening of hydroalcoholic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, proteins, and fixed oil.  The acute oral toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of root of A.javanica revealed that the extract was found to be safe till 2000 mg/kg BW.

Conclusion: The results of the present study will furnish data helpful in the correct identification and authentication of roots of A.javanica. The extractive value shed light on the most suitable solvent to be chosen to obtain extract rich in phytoconstituents. The physicochemical screening furnished data on important phytoconstituents present in the hydroalcoholic extract which could be helpful in isolation and purification of desired phytoconstituents.  Acute oral toxicity study revealed that the extract is safe till 2000 mg/kg BW which could be helpful in selection of dose for future pharmacological activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical Studies of the Foliar Epidermis and Petiole of some Lannea Species in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Ogochukwu E. Okanume, Lynda C. Ebelebe, O. A. Oso

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 41-55
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i230174

Aims: Leaf epidermal morphology and petiole anatomy of seven Lannea species namely; Lannea velutina, Lannea kerstingii, Lannea egregia, Lannea schimperii, Lannea acida, Lannea microcarpa, and Lannea edulis in Nigeria were investigated to provide new taxonomic characters that could help in proper identification and delimitation of the taxa.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria between August 2020 and March 2021.

Methodology: Transverse sections of petioles were cut using a rotary microtome and epidermal peels were made. Staining was done using Safranin and slides observed using a light microscope.

Results: Stomatal distribution was hypostomatic except for L. velutina and L. edulis with amphistomatic distribution. Three stomata types are found; paracytic occurring in L. velutina, L. edulis and L. egregia, cyclocytic in L. schimperii and L. microcarpa and anomocytic in L. kerstingii and L. acida. Stomata index vary among taxa with L. egregia and L. acida having the highest (22.43%) and lowest (12.17%) respectively. The epidermal cell shape was polygonal in all the species and anticlinal wall patterns were straight to slightly curved. Unicellular/multicellular uniseriate trichomes were observed in L. schimperii, L. egregia and L. kerstingii distinguishing them from other species. Petiole outlines were circular to oval, epidermis was uniseriate and vascular bundles are collateral. Presence of continuous sclerenchyma rings surrounding the vascular bundles in L. kerstingii and L. microcarpa serve as a distinguishing character. Other distinguishing characters are presence of crystals, druses and phenolic idioblasts. A taxonomic key was produced using the anatomical character as an aid to the identification of the species.

Conclusion: Variations observed in the stomata types, petiole outline, petiole vasculature type, trichome type and stomata index could be employed for species identification and delimitation.