Open Access Original Research Article

BRRI Dhan100: A Zinc Enriched Rice Variety Suitable for Irrigated Ecosystem in Bangladesh

Md. Abdul Kader, AKM Shalahuddin, Tapas Kumer Hore, Ratna Rani Majumder, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Kaniz Fatema, Partha Sarathi Biswas, Khandakar Md. Iftekharuddaula

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i130164

Recently released zinc enriched, high yielding, medium slender grain containing rice variety BRRI dhan100, appropriate for irrigated ecosystem of Bangladesh is an improvement over existing zinc enriched rice varieties for Bangladesh. The variety has satisfactorily passed the Proposed Variety Trial (PVT) conducted in the farmers’ field in Boro 2019-20 season. As a result National Seed Board (NSB) approved this variety for commercial cultivation in the Boro season (dry season) in 2021. It has modern plant type with 101 cm plant height and matures by 148 days. The proposed variety showed 1.20 t/ha higher yield than check variety BRRI dhan84. Identifying characters of this variety are green leaf, intermediate plant height, erect flag leaf, medium slender grain, intermediate leaf senescence grain. It can produce 7.7 - 8.8 t/ha grain yield. Thousand grain weight of the variety is 16.7 gm and head rice yield is 64%. The rice has zinc content 25.7 mg/kg, 26.8% amylose content with 7.8% protein content. The zinc enriched BRRI dhan100 is a superb variety for cultivating in the Boro season (dry) and farmers can be economically benefited and the country will be nutritionally benefited by the cultivation of BRRI dhan100.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Sowing Dates and Varieties on the Biological Yield of Wheat Crop (Triticum aestivum L.)

Sediq Omar Roshan, Rahmatullah Hashimi, Ghulam Habib Noori

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i130165

A field experiment was carried out in Dar-ul-Aman Research Farm, Kabul Afghanistan in 2017, to study the influence of sowing dates and varieties on the biological yield of wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement having three replications. Wheat was sown in different sowing dates i.e., October 24th, November 2nd, 12th, and 22nd in main plots, whereas five wheat varieties (Chounth # 1-2010, Moqawim-09, Shisham Bagh-08, Dar-ul-Aman-07 and Solh 2002) were in sub plots. November 2nd planted wheat had a highest biological yield of (6642.1 kg ha-1) followed by October 24th and November 12th which gave (6576.5) and (5711.0 kg ha-1) respectively. The lowest biological yield of (2975.1 kg ha-1) was given by the wheat varieties sown on November 22nd. Among the all-wheat varieties, Solh 2002, had significantly higher biological yield of (6263.7 kg ha-1) followed by Shisham Bagh-08 with biological yield of (5571.8 kg ha-1). However, Moqawim-09 had lowest biological yield of (4976.8 kg ha-1) compare to other varieties. While, evaluating performance of different wheat varieties on different sowing dates, Solh 2002, resulted in maximum biological yield (7476.2 kg ha-1) on November 2nd followed by Dar-ul-Aman-07 (6933.3 kg ha-1) and Shisham Bagh-08 (6860.0 kg ha-1) on November 2nd and October 24th respectively. On the other hand, Dar-ul-Aman-07 had lowest biological yield among the varieties (2015.5 kg ha-1) on November 22nd, it shows that, Dar-ul-Aman-07 had highest biological yield on early planting but lower yield on late sowing dates. The study shows that delay in wheat planting or selection of other varieties rather than Solh 2002 and Dar-ul-Aman-07 reduces the biological yield of the crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Organ Microscopy, Chemical Composition and Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Methanolic Leaf Extract and Fractions of Diaphananthe bidens

Immaculeta C. Umeyor, Chukwuebuka E. Umeyor, Cyril O. Ogbue, Felix A. Onyegbule, Festus B. C. Okoye

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i130166

Aim: The study aims to investigate high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-based chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic leaf extract and fractions of D. bidens.

Study Design: The study is a laboratory-based research involving collection, identification and preparation, of plants, extraction, characterization and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory potential of D. bidens.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria between January 2016 and June 2019.

Methodology: Powdered leaves of D. bidens was macerated in methanol and the obtained crude extract was fractionated using n-hexane, ethylacetate, butanol, and water respectively. The acute toxicity profile of the extract was determined. Spectroscopic factors of the plant were assayed using HPLC-DAD and the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract and its fractions were evaluated.

Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the crude extract has an LD50 > 5,000 mg/kg. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of compounds including apigenin monoglycoside, quercetin 3-O-(6''O-acetyl) galactopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-(6" O-malonyl) glucoside, genistein 8-C-glucoside, while anti-inflammatory study showed that the extract and fractions inhibited cellular activities of inflammatory mediators (86 – 97 %) in comparison with the diclofenac (53 %); thus, supporting its ethnomedicinal use in the treatment of inflammation.

Conclusions: Methanolic extract of D. bidens has wide margin of safety. It has sufficient deposit of flavonoids which might be responsible for its strong anti-inflammatory activity that is comparable with diclofenac.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Blended NPSZnB Fertiliser Rates on Growth and Yield of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] Varieties in Haro Limmu District

Birhanu Wakgari, Tadesse Debele, Thomas Abraham

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 29-40
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i130167

Tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is one of the most important cereal crops and predominant staple food in Ethiopia. However, its productivity is constrained by a number of problems, lack of site-specific fertilizer recommendation and high yielding varieties are crucial in the study area. Hence, a field experiment was conducted during 2020 main cropping season to identify most productive variety and determine most economically feasible blended NPSZnB fertilizer rate at Farmers Training Center in Ucha Kebele, Haro Limmu district. The experiment included five different NPSZnB fertilizer rates (0, 50,100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and three Tef varieties (Negus, Tesfa and local). The treatments were factorially combined and laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Days to 50% heading, days to 90% physiological maturity, plant height and thousand seed weight of Tef were significantly influenced by main effect of varieties, blended NPSZnB fertilizer rates and their interactions. Panicle length, dry biomass yield, lodging index, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index of Tef were significantly (P<0.001) affected by main effect of blended NPSZnB fertilizer rates and the interactions of the two factors, while the panicle length, dry biomass yield, lodging index and grain yield, straw yield and harvest index of Tef were significantly (P<0.01; 0.05) affected by main effect of varieties respectively. Highest (118.20 cm) plant height, dry biomass yield (9. 64 t ha-1), straw yield (7.02 t ha-1), grain yield (2.62 t ha-1), thousand seed weight (0.42 t ha-1) and harvest index (27.1%) were recorded from Tesfa variety with 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate. Similarly, the highest (7.42 t ha-1), straw yield, dry biomass yield (9.76 t ha-1), grain yield (2.34 t ha-1), thousand seed weight (0.4 g) and panicle length (44.20 cm)   were recorded from Tesfa variety with application of 200 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate and the highest total number of tillers (10.1) and effective number of tillers (9.7) were recorded with 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate. Grain yield of Tef showed increment by 91.22 % with the application of 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 with Tesfa variety over the control. Highest net profit of ETB 83229.4 with marginal rate of return of 1553.71% was recorded from Tesfa variety with application of 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 blended fertilizer rate. Therefore, farmers of the study area should use Tesfa variety based on the grain yield and net profitability benefits achieved with 150 kg NPSZnB ha-1 fertilizer rate to enhance Tef production and productivity. However, this experiment was conducted only for a single season and site, further study has to be done under different seasons and agro-ecologies to make more reliable recommendations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) Influenced by Plant Population and NPS Fertilizer Rates in Bako

Gezahegn Biru Sefera, Habtamu Ashagre, Thomas Abraham

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 41-53
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i130168

Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is a leguminous crop with a tremendous potential in achieving food and nutritional security in Ethiopia in future. In addition, mung bean plays a major role in improving soil nitrogen content through atmospheric nitrogen fixation, thus reducing the dependance on synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers. However, its productivity is limited by inadequate plant population and NPS fertilizer rate in the study area. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the optimum plant population and NPS fertilizer rates for mung bean borda variety in Bako. The experiment comprised of factorial combinations of four different plant populations (500000, 571429, 666667, and 800000 plants ha-1) and five NPS fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and it was laid out using Randomised Complete Block Design with three replications. Results indicated that main effect of plant population and NPS fertilizer rates had significant effect on phenology, growth, yield, and yield components of mung bean, except stand count, above-ground biomass, straw and seed yield, which were affected by the main factors and their interactions. Highest nodule dry weight per plant (0.14g), number of pods per plant (4.74 g), weight of seeds per pod (10.26 g), 100-seed weight (3.61g), and harvest index (31.16%) were observed under minimum plant population (500,000 plants ha-1). Moreover, effective nodules per plant (2.28), nodule fresh weight (0.33 gm), nodule dry weight (0.141g plant-1), number of pods per plant (4.79), seeds per pod (10.78 g), 100-seed weight (3.73 g) and harvest index (32.98%) were observed under 200 kg ha-1 NPS fertilizer rate. Highest stand count per hectare (780,667 plants ha−1), above-ground biomass (4,947kg ha-1), seed yield ha-1 (1,371kg ha-1) and straw yield (3,575 kg ha-1) were recorded at higher plant population (800,000 plants ha-1) with 200kg NPS ha-1 fertilizer rate. However, higher plant population (800,000 plants ha-1) at the rate of 100 kg NPS ha-1 fertilizer produced1, 325 kg ha-1seed yield which was the highest net benefit (50,080 TB) and marginal rate of returns (5,610.8%). Therefore, application of 100 kg NPS ha-1 fertilizer rate with plant population of 800,000 plants ha-1 can be recommended for mung bean production in the study area and similar agro-ecologies. However, the current study was carried out only in one location for one cropping season, hence further studies over many seasons and across several locations are needed to have a conclusive recommendation for wide range of agro-ecologies for mung bean production.