Open Access Short communication

Fungistatic Activity of Floral Volatile Compounds of Alstonia scholaris

Ambatkar Mugdha, D’Cruz Kevin

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2020/v6i330131

Aims: The fragrant flowers of Alstonia scholaris are rich in volatile compounds or essential oils, which comprise terpenes such as 1,8-cineole and linalool. The effects of the oils on the growth of Aspergillus niger were assessed for the first time in the present study.

Study Design: Fungal growth assay.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai, between September 2006 and December 2006.

Methodology: The volatile compounds of A. scholaris were extracted through steam distillation and hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger apparatus. The effect of the steam distillate (10% v/v) on the number of spores of A. niger was observed over 5 days. Furthermore, three fractions with distinct fragrances and boiling points were collected through hydrodistillation. The effects of each fraction on mycelial growth and sporulation in A. niger were examined. Accordingly, each hydrodistilled fraction was incorporated in growth medium (10% v/v) inoculated with fungal spores. The growth of the fungus was observed over 5 days. Distilled water was used as the control. All experiments were conducted in triplicate.

Results: The fungal samples treated with steam distillates showed a significantly lower number of spores than the control after 5 days (165 ± 36 vs. 35 ± 7 spores/mL) at P ≤ .05. Furthermore, the fungal samples treated with the hydrodistilled fractions exhibited a delayed mycelial growth and sporulation compared with the control over 5 days. Fraction 1 was most effective in delaying mycelial growth (Day 4 vs. Day 1). Notably, on Day 4 none of the treated samples but the control sample exhibited sporulation.

Conclusion: The volatile compounds of A. scholaris flowers clearly suppressed and delayed both mycelial growth and sporulation in A. niger but did not inhibit growth entirely. Hence, the floral volatile compounds exhibit fungistatic activity against A. niger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Effect of Chlorusulfuron, Nitrogen Fertilizer and Varieties on Striga Management in Sorghum in Western, Tigray, Ethiopia

Letemariam Desta, Ibrahim Fitw, Alemu Araya

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2020/v6i330128

A field experiment was conducted during the cropping seasons of 2017/2018 to evaluate the effect of levels of herbicide and N fertilizer and sorghum varieties on striga management in the Western Tigray. Split-split plot design was used to conduct the experiment using three replicate. The experiment comprised of four levels of N fertilizer in the main plot (control (0 kg/ha, 23, 46 and 69 kgha-1) and herbicide applications in sub-plot (0, 10, 15 and 20 gha-1) and three sorghum varieties (Birhan, Deber and Wediaker) in sub-sub plot under naturally S. hermonthica infested area. Striga counts and striga growth parameters were recorded. Results showed that days to first flowering, striga count per sorghum plant, stand counts of striga at 45 DAP, 65 DAP and 85 DAP per m-2, branch number per plant, plant height and biomass of striga were significantly (P<0.01) affected with the application of N fertilizer, herbicide rates and varieties. Generally, an integrated approach was found to be the best method to control striga.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Mung Bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] to Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer under Irrigation in Central Ethiopia

Mezgebu Demeke, M. W. Tesema, Tamado Tana, Jemal Abdulahi

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2020/v6i330129

Mung bean has become an important cash and food crop in dry land areas of Ethiopia. However, there is no sufficient research information on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers rates for the crop in the study area. Thus, field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of N and P fertilizer rates on growth, yield components and yield of mung bean under irrigation at Nura-Era, central Ethiopia. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of three N fertilizer rates (0, 23 and 46 kg N ha-1) in the form of Urea (46% N) and five P fertilizer rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg P ha-1) in the form of Triple Superphosphate (20% P)  laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Result of the main effect of nitrogen rate showed significantly highest number of primary branches per plant (4.25), number of  pods per plant (17.7), and 100 seed weight (4.94 g) at 23 kg N ha-1. Similarly, the main effect of P fertilizer rate showed that the application of 40 kg P ha-1 produced significantly the highest number of primary branches per plant (4.79), highest number of pods per plant (20.85), the highest number of seeds per pod (6.24), the highest aboveground dry biomass (6838.83 kg ha-1), the highest 100 seed weight (5.21 g) and the highest harvest index (25.96%). The interaction of N and P rates showed that the combination of 23 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg P ha-1 gave the highest grain yield (1902.78 kg ha-1). Thus, the combination of 23 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg P ha-1 can be used to increase the productivity of mung bean in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Performance of BINA Released Six Promising Aman Rice Varieties of Bangladesh

Md. Robiul Islam Akondo, Md. Belal Hossain, Sayed Eshtiak Akter, Md. Morshedul Islam

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2020/v6i330130

The experiment was conducted with six rice varieties to determine their growth and yield performance. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. All the growth and yield contributing attributes varied significantly among the six rice varieties. The results revealed that maximum No. of filled spikelets/panicle observed in Binadhan-16 (108.43) and that was statistically similar with Binadhan-17 (100.10). Minimum number of filled spikelets/panicle observed in Binadhan-11 (60.60) and that was statistically similar with Binadhan-15 (63.87). Maximum 1000-seed weight was observed in Binadhan-16 (25.67 g) that was statistically similar with Binadhan-20 (25.33 g). The minimum 1000-seed weight was observed in Binadhan-15 (22.33 g) that was statistically similar with Binadhan-17 (23.00 g). Maximum number of non effective tiller was observed in Binadhan-11 (11.53) and minimum number in Binadhan-17 (2.30) that was statistically similar with Binadhan-16 (2.94). Highest grain yield was obtained from Binadhan-16 (6.57 t ha-1) that was significantly different from other varieties. Lowest grain yield observed in Binadhan-15 (5.39 t ha-1) that was statistically similar to Binadhan-7 (5.54 t ha-1). The highest straw yield (6.80 t ha–1) is produced by Binadhan-16 (Fig. 2). The lowest (5.89 t ha–1) straw yield was produced by Binadhan-7.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostic and Taxonomic Studies of Cola parchycarpa K. Schum. (Malvaceae)

Imoh I. Johnny, Margret E. Bassey

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 33-45
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2020/v6i330132

C. pachycarpa is a lesser-known member of the genus Cola in the family Malvaceae. In Nigeria its fruits are edible but with non-edible seeds as the general Cola ‘Kolanut” This study is carried out to evaluate the taxonomic and pharmacognostic characters of Cola pachycarpa K. Schum. for its identification, authentication and standardization. The pharmacognostic and taxonomic characters were determined from macroscopy, microscopy, petiole anatomy, powder microscopy, chemomicroscopy, micromeritic properties, ash values, extractive values, fluorescence analysis and phytochemical screening using standard methods. The leaves of C. pachycarpa were alternate, petiolate, compound and trifoliate. Petioles were within 45-50 cm long, leaflets 20-38 cm long, 10-19 cm wide, the middle leaflet were often longer than others. Leaflets were short petiolulate to subsessile, leaflet shape was elliptic, apex acuminate, margin entire and texture hairy on the abaxial surface of the leaflet with brown caducuous hairs on the abaxial surface only. Stem was erect, woody and scabrid about 4-10 cm in diameter. The fruit was 15 cm long and 7 cm wide with about 3-5 seeds occurring in a pod. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides but anthraquinone was absent for the leaf while all were present except alkaloid, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone in the stem. Epidermal cells were polygonal with straight anticlinal walls. Drusiferous crystals were observed on the petioles. Leaflets were hypostomatic with anisocytic stomata and stellate trichomes on the abaxial surface. The chemomicroscopic study revealed the presence of lignin, starch, cellulose, oils, calcium oxalate crystals, mucilage and protein for both leaf and stem. The fluorescence characteristics showed the presence of different colours supporting the presence of various phytoconstituents for both leaf and stem. The flow properties for both leaf and stem were fair and passable with the angle of repose of 35° and 45°respectively. The quantitative epidermal studies, chemomicroscopic and fluorescence characteristics revealed characteristic features for the drug. The physico-chemical results for leaf and stem gave total ash of 8.24% and 11.5%, water soluble ash of 3.71% and 3.20%, acid-insoluble ash of 0.99% and 4.33% and moisture content of 10.58% and 4.33%, water-soluble extractive of 12.50 % and 9.40%, ethanol-soluble extractive of 9.10% and 2.90%, methanol-soluble extractive of 8.00 % and 2.30% and ethyl-acetate acetate-soluble extractive of 2.00% and 0.50% respectively.

The findings of the research will help in the identification and authentication of the plant as well as establishing standards for quality, purity, safety, efficacy and reproducibility in phytomedicine.