Asian Plant Research Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Plant Research Journal (ISSN: 2581-9992)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers <a href="/index.php/APRJ/general-guideline-for-authors">(Click here for Types of paper)</a> in all aspects of plant research. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> en-US (Asian Plant Research Journal) (Asian Plant Research Journal) Mon, 08 Nov 2021 12:28:17 +0000 OJS 60 Physicochemical Properties of Soil under Different Forest Types in the Western Ramganga Valley (Uttarakhand Himalaya, India) <p>The physicochemical properties of soils of six forests varying in elevation (lower, middle, and upper), slope, aspects, and floristic composition viz. L1 (Oak mixed), L2 (Chir pine), M1 (<em>Rhododendron </em>mixed), M2 (<em>Rhododendron</em> mixed), U1 (<em>Abies </em>mixed) and U2 (<em>Abies</em> mixed) from Western Ramganga Valley (Chamoli, Uttarakhand Himalaya, India) were scrutinized. The composite soil samples from three depths (0–10 cm, 11–20 cm, and 21–30 cm) were collected during the different seasons and the physicochemical parameters were analyzed using standard manual and protocol. Texture, bulk density, moisture content, water holding capacity, organic matter, organic carbon, pH, nitrogen content, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and C:N ratio of soil samples from each forest site were analyzed and discussed. It was observed that the physical properties of soils either do not vary across the three depths (0–10 cm, 11–20 cm, and 21–30 cm) or show slight changes whereas chemical properties show notable variations comparatively. The significant variation (ANOVA, <em>P </em>&lt; 0.05) was observed in the soil texture (sand, silt, and clay contents), moisture content, water holding capacity, and nitrogen content across the six forest types (study sites). The soil texture ranged between loam and sandy loam which is considered supportive for plant growth. Besides, the lower bulk density and higher soil organic carbon and organic matter with other determined parameters in the studied soils indicate that the studied six forests have sustained nutritive soils. It can be concluded from the present results that the soil physicochemical properties vary with changes in the vegetation composition (forest types) at different elevations in Western Himalaya. Further elaborative study will be done to ascertain interrelationship among the vegetation and soils.</p> Dinesh Singh Rawat, Deep Shekhar Das, Prabhawati Tiwari, Preeti Naithani, Jay Krishan Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hypolipidemic Potentials of Methanolic Extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria Leaves in Rats Fed with High Cholesterol <p>The study was aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic potential of methanolic extract <em>Rauvolfia vomitoria</em> leaves in high cholesterol-fed rats. The preliminary study showed that<em> R. vomitoria</em> leaves were able to scavenge the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sufonic acid) (ABTS) and 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and these radicals scavenging abilities were found to be dose-dependent. Administration of cholesterol to rats for 45 days induced a significant increase in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and increase lipids levels in the plasma and tissues while HDL cholesterol was decreased. It also elevated the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the tissues. However, co-administration of high cholesterol-fed rats with <em>R. vomitoria</em> extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reversed lipids levels to near normal with cholesterol in the plasma, liver, heart, kidney and lung reduced by (23.13% and 56.43%), (30.09% and 20.90%), (38.21% and 74.53%), (12.61% and 32.49%) and (37.11% and 29.90%) respectively while HDL cholesterol level was increased by (225.44% and 110.39%). The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in the plasma and MDA in the tissues were also decreased while SOD activities in the liver, heart, kidney and lung were elevated by (89.35% and 149.21%), (74.91% and 68.35%), (56.76% and 114.77%), and (204.91% and 274.62%) respectively. The extract of<em> R. vomitoria</em> was found to be rich in phenolic content and was proved to have no toxic effects on rats when administered alone to normal rats at a dose level of 200mg/kg/day. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects of <em>R. vomitoria</em> and, suggests that the plant could serve as a new potential natural product for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.</p> Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Adewale Adetutu, Olufemi Ogundeji Ogundipe, Akinade William Owoade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Profitability of Agroforestry in Rural Multan of Pakistan <p>Agroforestry remained a profitable venture across the globe if managed well spatially and temporarily. Farmlands are viable option to practice agroforestry in Pakistan for sustaining farmers’ livelihoods as well as to provide products and services for ever increasing population. This study focusses on how agroforestry is being perceived as profitable enterprise by the farmers in Multan, Punjab Pakistan. Rural areas of Multan were selected for this study and 200 farmers were selected randomly from 10 villages across 02 union councils using multi-stage sampling procedure. The results revealed that agroforestry remained the prime land use system as reported by the farmers (99%) belonging to agropastoral and agroforestry practice. Moreover, agroforestry perceived as high-income system providing variety of product (increased crop and fodder production, variety of products and income) and services (Carbon sequestration, climate amelioration, soil conservation). The study concluded the need for public-private partnership for the promotion of agroforestry in the region.</p> Muhammad Zubair, Syed Muhammad Atif Tasleem, Syed Bilal Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 13 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Habitat Assessment and Regeneration Pattern of Himalayan Birch (Betula utilis) in Royal Botanical Park, Lampelri <p>The Himalayan Birch (<em>Betula utilis</em> D. Don) an essential tree species due to its ecological and social importance in the himalayan region.&nbsp; The study assessed&nbsp; the effect of environmental factors on habitat, growth, and regeneration patterns of the Himalayan Birch at the Royal Botanical Park, Lampelri, Bhutan . Two vertical transects with a spacing of 75 m were laid across the altitudinal gradient. A total of 10 circular sample plots were laid on each transect with a plot size of 12.62 m for trees, 3.57 m for regeneration, and 0.57 m for ground cover vegetation. A total of 119 vascular plant species under 45 families were recorded in 20 survey plots. The Spearman rho’s correlation showed strong negative correlation between the species abundance and temperature (<em>r<sub>s</sub></em>=- .83) and positive correlation with the species count and altitude (<em>r<sub>s</sub></em> = .83). The species richness in the study area showed an initial increase up to certain with elevation and then&nbsp; decreased with further increase in elevation. The importance value index (IVI) of tree species showed <em>Tsuga dumosa</em> as the most dominant species.&nbsp; <em>Betula utilis indicated an increasing density</em> with an increase in elevation. The regeneration of <em>Betula utilis </em>was poor as it was mostly found in a sapling stage. From a total of 43 tree species regenerating,&nbsp; 13.95% showed good regeneration, 34.88% fair, 23.25% poor, and 4.65% without regeneration. The remaining 23.25% seems&nbsp; to be either reappearing or immigrating.</p> Bhagat Suberi, Kinzang Wangchuk, Karma Sherub ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Different Types of Pruning Operations on Yield and Quality of Tea <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Pruning is the cutting of branches of a tea bush at predetermined height and at a specified interval in order to reinvigorate and bring tea bushes within reach of the pluckers, which directly related to the productivity and quality of tea. In Bangladesh, Three and four year pruning cycles were the conventional recommendations for the tea plantation. In this experiment, along with BTRI recommended four types of pruning operations (LP, DSK, MSK and LSK), two more types of&nbsp; pruning operations such as: UP (Unprune) and LoS (Level of Skiff) were considered as treatments. This experiment was conducted with two main objectives: to evaluate the yield and yield related parameters of tea due to different types of pruning operations as well as to find out the effect of pruning operations on organoleptic quality of black tea.</p> <p><strong>Study Design, Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This experiment was conducted ‘D2 Thall’ area at the main research farm of Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI) from December 2017 to November 2019. The experimental design was Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with six treatments and three replications.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The treatments are denoted as T1 (UP: Unpruned) control, T2 (LP: Light Pruning), T3 (DSK: Deep Skiffing), T4 (MSK: Medium Skiffing), T5 (LSK: Light Skiffing) and T6 (LoS: Level of Skiffing) respectively. Data were collected under the following parameters:</p> <ol> <li>Number of plucking point or pluckable shoot/bush in each plucking</li> <li>Fresh weight (g) of 100 shoots (three leaves and a bud)</li> <li>Oven Dry weight (g) of 100 shoots (three leaves and a bud) to calculate Dry Matter Content</li> <li>Green leaf weight (kg) to calculate Yield of each treatment</li> <li>Number of plucking round to calculate Yield gap of each treatment</li> <li>Black Tea Quality of each treatment by Organoleptic Tasting Method.</li> </ol> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was found that, number of plucking points/pluckable shoot and yield were found significantly high in T6 (Level of Skiffing), T5 (Light Skiffing) and T1 (Unpruned) than the other treatments. But in terms of tea quality, lowest quality tea was found in T1 (Unpruned), T6 (Level of Skiffing) and T5 (Light Skiffing) treatment. So, it can be concluded that, ‘Skiff Pruning’ or ‘Unprune’ technique had positive effect on yield but the quality of these technique were poor in comparison with other treatments. T2 (Light Pruning) treatment gave more tender and fresh shoot than the other treatment. For this reason, dry matter was low in T2 (Light Pruning) treatment but tea quality was much better than the other pruning technique.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Pruning has&nbsp; positive or&nbsp; negative effect on&nbsp; yield and quality of&nbsp; tea.&nbsp; ‘Skiff Pruning’ or</p> <p>‘Unprune’ has positive effect on yield but the quality of is poor than the other treatments. Best Quality tea can be produced from Light Pruning tea section because of having more tender and fresh shoot than other treatments.</p> Md. Imran Hossen, Toufiq Ahmed, Riyadh Arefin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 27 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Transplant Aus Rice Varieties under Different Nitrogen Management Practices <p>Management of applied nitrogen in rice field is one tool that could lead to increase in rice yield, but often ignored by most farmers. The experiment was carried out from April to July 2015 at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali to find out the influence of different nitrogen management and variety on the yield performance of transplant <em>Aus</em>rice. The study consisted of four levels of nitrogen <em>viz.</em> Control (without N), 30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, 60 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and urea super granule @ 52 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and four Transplanted <em>aus </em>rice varieties <em>viz. KaliHitta</em>, <em>ChaitaBoro, Abdul Hai and Gota IRRI, </em>and was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The levels of nitrogen were assigned in the main plot and varieties were allocated in the sub-plots. Nitrogen management, variety and their interactions exerted significant (P ≤ 0.05) influence on plant characters, yield contributing characters and yield of transplanted <em>Aus </em>rice. In the case of nitrogen management, the tallest plant was 161.60 cm, maximum leaf area index(2.97, the highest number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>15, longest panicle 24.30 cm with the maximum number of filled grains as94.73, 1000-grain weight gave 29.97 g. Grain yield of 2.48 t ha<sup>-1</sup> were obtained from USG @ 52 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and the shortest plant height of 136.90 cm with lowest leaf area index of 1.78, lowest number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (8.43), shortest panicle (18.84 cm) with the lowest numbers of filled grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (53.18), 1000-grain weight (24.33 g) and grain yield (1.40 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were obtained in control (N<sub>1=O,</sub> kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). Among the varieties, <em>ChaitaBoro</em> gave the tallest plant height (151.60 cm) and maximum leaf area index (2.54). While the highest number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (12.20), longest panicle (22.42 cm) with the maximum number of filled grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (73.50), highest 1000-grain weight (27.41 g) and highest grain yield (2.39 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded from <em>Gota IRRI</em> than other varieties. In case of interaction, <em>Gota IRRI F</em>ertilized with USG at 52 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (16.87), panicle length (25.13 cm), number of grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (105.70) and grain yield (3.13 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The lowest number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (8.13), lowest panicle length (17.47 cm) with minimum numbers of filled grains 47.67) and grain yield (1.12 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were produced by the interaction of control (N<sub>1=O,</sub> kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) and <em>Kali Hitta</em>. So, cultivation of transplant <em>Aus </em>rice (<em>Gota IRRI) </em>appeared to be the best performance with USG @ 52 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and recommended to the end users.</p> Md. Omar Faruk, A. S. M. Iqbal Hussain, Md. Abu Yusuf, Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional Evaluation of Brillantaisia patula Leaves <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of <em>Brillantaisia patula</em> leaves using standard analytical methods.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional compositions were determined in the chemistry laboratory of Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti while the amino acid was determined at the Analytical Laboratory of Multi-Environmental Management Consultant, Lagos, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The proximate composition was carried out using the methods of Association of Official Chemists (AOAC) while mineral and anti-nutritional compositions were determined using standard analytical methods. Amino acid analysis was carried out through ion exchange chromatography (IEC) using the Technicon Sequential Multisample (TSM) Amino Acid Analyser.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The proximate composition ranged from 3.18% (crude fat) to 38.6% (carbohydrate). The major mineral constituents of the sample were: P (1061 mg/100g), K (874 mg/100g), Ca (799 mg/100g), Na (82.6 mg/100g) and Mg (24.3 mg/100g) while the minor mineral constituents were: Fe (26.9 mg/100g), Zn (7.7 mg/100g) and Mn (6.05 mg/100g). The evaluated anti-nutritional contents were: 6.71 mg/g oxalate, 5.37 % saponin, 1.0 mg/100g tannin and 4.72 mg/kg cyanide. Additional results showed that the leaves contained eighteen amino acids with values ranging from 0.504 g/100g cp (tryptophan) to 14.0 g/100g cp (glutamic acid). The value of the total essential amino acids (TEAA) with histidine was 45.6g/100g cp while the total non-essential amino acid (TNEAA) was evaluated to be 46.5 g/100g cp.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Brillantaisia patula</em> leaves could be utilized as a good source of essential amino acids and important mineral elements.&nbsp;</p> A. F. Akinsola, O. C. Olatunde, I. Osasona, O. F. Sekayo, F. O. Omotayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Vine Length and Leaf Removal on Growth and Yield of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.)] in the Wet Middleveld of Eswatini <p>Sweet potato (<em>Ipomoea batatas</em> L.) is an economically important food crop in Eswatini. Since its introduction, numerous agronomic research activities were carried out in agricultural research centers, non-governmental organizations, and universities. However, information on the correct vine length for planting to improve sweet potato root yield in Eswatini is scanty. Therefore, this study aimed at helping farmers with the correct vine length to be used for improved growth and yield of sweet potatoes. A field experiment was conducted at the Luyengo campus, crop production farm during the 2019/2020 crops season. It was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial arrangement with three replicates. The treatments were vines planted with or without leaves and different vine lengths; 25 cm, 30 cm, and 35 cm. Kenya white variety was used. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters. Results showed that leaf removal yielded significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower than non-leaf removal. This may be attributed to delayed photosynthetic activity in the former.&nbsp; The Vine length had no significant effect on yield. It is concluded that vines with leaves be used as planting material, and the length of vines to be used for planting should be 25 to 30 cm.</p> N. Mkhatshwa, M. P. Mabuza, N. S. Zubuko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Documentation of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) on Commonly Available Plants in Koira Range, Bonai Forest Division, Sundargarh, Odisha, India <p>Mining activities are an important source of revenue for the development of the nation. However, it creates lots of social and ecological imbalance. The major remarked problem is that the local communities of mining areas losses their Indigenous Traditional Practices. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to document the indigenous traditional knowledge on commonly available plants in Koira Range, a mining impacted areas of the Bonai Forest Division, Odisha, India. Twenty nine villages of 4 sections are selected for present survey works. The results revealed that about 63 plants are commonly used by the local communities for different purposes. The practices are documented through present study. The present work will provide a baseline data for conservation strategy and biological activities including value addition of available plant wealth.</p> Sanath Kumar N, Sweta Mishra, Sanjeet Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mineral Uptake, Total Polyphenols and Total Flavonoids of Barley as Affected by Tillage Practices under Semi-Arid Conditions <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Conservation agriculture has been recommended as an option to mitigate climate change impact when practicing conventional, to ensure sustainability and food security This study examined the effect of conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) on mineral elements uptake, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of barley.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Split-plot design was applied for this study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The experiment was conducted in ESAK station (Boulifa, kef, North West Tunisia) during 2016/2017 cultivation year.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Mineral elements uptake, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of barley were studied as affected by conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) for tillering and grain filling stages.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that tillage practices (T) had no significant effect on mineral uptake, total phenolic content and total flavonoids content under rainfed conditions. The stage (S) had showed significant effects on P, Ca and Na amounts for both tillage practices when it had no effect on K amount. The interaction T x S had no significant effect on mineral elements concentrations and TFC. However, this interaction had affected TPC significantly. Phosphorous (P) showed high significant positive correlations with Ca and Na. In addition, P presented high significant negative correlations with TPC and TFC. For partial correlation based on Tillage practices, similar correlations values were noted.&nbsp; Considering the partial correlation based on plant stages, no significant correlations had been noted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This work enlarges our knowledge on barley mineral elements uptake, TPC and TFC as influenced by tillage practices aiding decision makers in increasing no tillage adoption in Tunisia under rainfed conditions.</p> Nadia Chaieb, Abdelkarim Chiab, Zied Ben Ali Idoudi, Moncef Ben-Hammouda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Natural Mycorrhization, Mineral Uptake, Total Polyphenols and Total Flavonoids of Oat as Affected by Tillage Practices under Rainfed Conditions <p><strong>Aims: </strong>As conservation agriculture have been proposed as an option to limit conventional agriculture impact and to ensure sustainability and food security. This study examined the effect of conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) on mycorrhization rate, mineral elements uptake, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of oat during tillering.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Split-plot design was applied for this study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The experiment was conducted at the referential farm for direct drilling (Krib, Siliana) situated in northwestern Tunisia during 2015/2016 cultivation year.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Mycorrhization rate (MR), mineral elements uptake, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of oat were studied as affected by conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) during tillering stage.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that tillage practices (T) had no significant effect on mycorrhization rate, mineral uptake, total phenolic content and total flavonoids content under rainfed conditions. Even if NT had no significant effect on MR, higher rates were noted for NT compared to CT.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study extends our knowledge on oat mycorrhization, mineral elements uptake, TPC and TFC as affected by tillage practices to advance results helping decision makers for no tillage adoption upscaling in Tunisia under rainfed conditions.</p> Nadia Chaieb, Sonia Labidi, Abdel Karim Chiab, Zied Ben Ali Idoudi, Faysal Ben Jeddi, Moncef Ben-Hammouda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000