Main Article Content
Two locations Wadi El-Bagha in South Sinai and Wadi Hashem in Mersa Matruh, Egypt were selected for monitoring changes of protein patterns and chemical composition of Lycium showii (L. showii) due to seasonal variations. Significant differences (P < 0.05 or 0.01) occurred of mechanical properties and chemical analysis of the soil associated of L. showii by 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from three sites (up, mid, down-streams) in Wadi El-Bagha and Wadi Hashem as well as interactions them (depths, sites and locations). Soil associated with the plants in Wadi Hashem possessed higher water content and electrical conductivity in down-stream as well as higher Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ in the up-stream during the 20-40 cm depth. Locations, sites and seasons as well as their interactions trends were showed highly significant with plant Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, N and P contents, with insignificance in Ca2+ and N contents by seasons and locations x seasons, respectively. The Na+ and K+ of Wadi Hashem and N and P of Wadi El-Bagha in autumn as well as Ca2+ of Wadi Hashem and Mg2+ of Wadi El-Bagha in spring were recorded the highest values during mid-stream. The SDS-PAGE method showed different molecular weights of protein patterns in L. shawii leaves in the two locations during autumn and spring seasons. The highest molecular weight (148.3 kD) was observed in Wadi El-Bagha during autumn season, while the lowest molecular weight (10.5 kD) was found in Wadi Hashem and Wadi El-Bagha during spring and autumn season, respectively. The number of bands in Wadi El-Bagha had higher than in Wadi Hashem during the both seasons. The leaves of L. showii have specific unique high molecular weights proteins in Wadi El-Bagha at autumn and spring seasons. Thus, these patterns reflect variations of behavior and adaptation of L. shawii under stress conditions in the studied locations and seasons.
Ouled Belgacem A, Tarhouni M, and Louhaichi M. Effect of protection on plant community dynamics in the Mediterranean arid zone of southern Tunisia: A case study from Bouhedma national park. Land Degrad Dev. 2013;24(1):57-62.
Ahmad I, Ahmad MSA, Ashraf M, Hussain M, Ashraf MY. Seasonal variation in some medicinal and biochemical ingredients in Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Pak j Bot. 2011;43:69-77.
Boulos L. Flora of Egypt: Checklist Revised annotated edition. Al - Hadara Publishing, Cairo, Egypt, 410 pages; 2009.
Hepper FN. Flora of Egypt. Family 159: Solanaceae. Tãeckholmia Additional Series. 1998;6:1-168.
Brown G. Factors maintaining plant diversity in degraded areas of northern Kuwait. J of Arid Env. 2003;54(1):183-194.
Aslam R, Bostan N, Nabgha-e-Amen M., Safdar, M, Safdar W. A critical review on halophytes: salt tolerant plants. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:7108-7118.
Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ. Plant cellular andmolecular responses to high salinity. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol, Plant Mol Biol.2000;51:463-499.
Misra A, Tyler G. Influence of soil moisture on soil solution chemistry and concentrations of minerals in the calcicoles Phleum phleoides and Veronica spicata grown on a limestone soil. Ann Bot. 1999;84:401-410.
Alam SM. Nutrient uptake by plants under stress conditions. In Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop stress. 1999;285-313. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Maathuis FJM. Physiological functions of mineral macronutrients. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009;12:250-258.
Metson AJ, Saunders WMH. Seasonal variation in chemical composition of pasture. I. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and phosphorus. New Zealand j of Agric Res. 1978a;21:341-353.
Metson AJ, Saunders WMH. Seasonal variations in chemical composition of pasture, New Zealand J of Agric Res. 1978b;21(2):355-364.
Bohs L. Major clades in Solanum based on NDHF sequence data. Keating, RC, Hollowell, VC, Croat TB. (Eds.). A festschrift for William GD’Arcy: the legacy of a taxonomist. St. Louis Monogr;2005.
Isshiki S, Iwataa N, Khana MMR. ISSR variations in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and related Solanum species. Sci Hort. 2008;117:186-190.
Ahmed SM, Fadl, MA. RAPD based genetic diversity analysis within the genus Solanum. Egypt J Bot. 2015;55(2):175-185.
Ashraf M, Harris PJC. Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plant. Plant Sci. 2004;(166):3-16.
Sha Valli Khan PS, Hoffmann L, Renaut J, Hausman JF. Current initiatives in proteomics for the analysis of plant salt tolerance. Curr Sci. 2007;93:807-817.
Arora R, Pitchay DS, Bearce BC. Water-stress-induced heat tolerance in Geranium leaf tissues: A possible linkage through stress proteins? Physiol Plant. 1998;103: 24-34.
El-Absy KMA. Biochemical adjustment of Nitraria retusa (Forssk.) Asch. and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) K. Koch. to saline habitats. M. Sc. Thesis, Bot Dep, Fac of Sci, Tanta Univ; 2006.
Abdel Kawy AH. Ecophysiological studies on metabolic activities and antioxidant enzymes in some naturally growing plants under drought and salinity stresses in the North Western and Eastern coasts of Egypt. Ph. D., Dep of Bot, Fac of Sci, Ain Shams Univ; 2015.
Hunziker AT. Genera Solanacearum: The Genera of Solanaceae Illustrated, Arranged According to a New System, Ruggell, Gantner, 500 pages; 2001.
Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis. Pritice Hall of India Private., New Delhi., India;1967.
Rowell DL. Soil science methods and applications. Longman Publishers, Singapors. 1994;229.
Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis constable and co. Ltd. London;1962.
Tuzuner A. Soil and water laboratory analysis guide. Ankara: General Directorate of Rural Services Publications; 1990.
Bremner JM. Total nitrogen and inorganic forms of nitrogen. In: Methods of Soil Analyses. (Ed.): C.A. Black. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. 1965;1149-1237.
Chapman HD, Pratt PF. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. University of California, U.S.A, PP. 309, 1961.
Curioni A, Ponga NE, Pasini G, Spettoli P, Voltarel M, peruffo ADB. characterisation of the glutenin fraction from eikorn wheat (Triticum monococum SSP.Mononcoccum) with different bread making qualities. Italian J of Food Sci. 2000;12:91-102.
Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970;227: 680-685.
Singh NK, Shepherd KW. The structure and genetic control of a new class of disulphide-linked proteins in wheat endosperm. Theo and App Gene. 1985; 7:79-92.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill. New York. 1980.
El-Absy KM, Kasim WA, El-Kady HF, El-Shourbagy MN. Physiological studies on Achillea fragrantissima and Artemisia judaica in saint katherine, south sinai, Egypt. Inter J of Scientific Res in Agric Sci, 2(Proceedings). 2015;127-136.
El-Absy KM, Kamel AM. Physiological and anatomical responses of Teucrium polium L. growing under different habitat conditions at North West Coast and South Sinai. J of Biodiversity and Env Sci. 2019; 15(6):40-52.
Bonifacio E, Morte A. Soil properties in Desert truffles- Phylogeny, Physiology, Distribution and Domestication. Editor: Springer Verlag Germany. Heidelberg Germany. 2014;57-67.
Ramos TB, Šimu˚ nek J, Goncalves, MC, Martins JC, Prazeres A, Pereira LS. Two-dimensional modeling of water and nitrogen fate from sweet sorghum irrigated with fresh and blended saline waters. Agric Water Manag. 2012;111:87-104.
Ahmed FA, Abdallah NM, Ezz MK, El-Azab MM. Seasonal variations and identification of biologically active constituents of Lycium shawii Plant Roem. & Shult. (Family Solanaceae). International Journal of Innovative Science, Engin. & Tech. 2017; 4(11):34-47.
Larcher W. Physiological plant ecology. Springer- Verlage, Berlin Heidellerg, Germany;1995.
El-Lamey TM. Changes in some chemical compounds of Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb & Berthel. in response to different environmental conditions. J of Biodiversity and Env Sci. 2020;16(2):78-91.
Marschner P, Rengel Z. Nutrient availability in soils. Ch. 12 In: Ernest A. Kirkby, Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Elsevier Ltd; 2012.
Kang J, Iersel MW. Nutrient solution concentration affects shoot: root ratio, leaf area ratio and growth of sub-irrigated Salvia (Salvia splendens). HortSci. 2004; 39:49-54.
Grattan SR, Grieve CM. Salinity±mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae. 1999;78:127-157.
Hu Y, Schmidhalter U. Drought and salinity: A comparison of their effectson mineral nutrition of plants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. 2005;168:541-549.
Estevez JA, Landete-Castillejos T, GarcíaB AJ, Ceacero F, Martínez A, Gaspar-López E, Calatayud A, Gallego L. Seasonal variations in plant mineral content and free-choice minerals consumed by deer. Ani Prod Sci. 2010;50: 177-185.
Roberts AHC. Seasonal variation in soil tests and nutrient content of pasture at two sites in Taranaki, New Zealand J of Exp Agric. 1987;15(3):283-294.
Stocker’s O. Physiological and morphological changes in plants due to water deficiency. In "Plant Water Relationships on Arid and Semi-Arid Conditions". UNESCO. 1960;15:63-104.
Akinci S, Lösel DM. Plant water stress response mechanisms. Ismail, M.; Rahman, M. and Hasegawa, H. (Eds). Rijeka Croatia. 2012;(1):15-42.
Osuagwu GGE, Edeoga HO. The influence of water stress (drought) on the mineral and vitamin contnt of leaves of Gongronema latifolium (benth). Int J Med Arom Plants. 2012;2(2):301-309.
Morsy AA, Youssef AM, Mosallam HAM, Hashem AM. Assessment of selected species along Al-Alamein-Alexandria international desert road, Egypt. J of App Sci Res. 2008;4(10):1276-1284.
Abdelgadir EM. Oka, M., Fujiyama, H. Characteristics of nitrate of vegetables and ornamentals. In: Savvas, D., Passam, H. (Eds.). Emb Publ Athens Greece. 2005;211-261.
Kaya C, Kirnak H, Higgs D. Enhancement of growth and normal growthparameters by foliar application of potassium and phosphorus in tomato cultivars grown at high (NaCl) salinity. J Plant Nutr. 2001;24:357-367.
Parida AK, Das AB. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: A review. Ecotox Env Saf. 2005;60:324-349.
Marschner H. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, London, UK; 1995.
Flowers TJ, Munns R, Colmer TD. Sodium chloride toxicity and the cellular basis of salt tolerance in halophytes. Ann Bot. 2015;115:419-431.
Zheng H, Zhao H, Liu H, Wang J, Zou D. QTL analysis of Na+ and K+ concentrations in shoots and roots under NaCl stress based on linkage and association analysis in japonica rice. Euphytica. 2014;201:109-121.
El- Ghamery A,. Khafagi AAF, Ragab OG. Taxonomic implication of pollen morphology and seed protein electrophoresis of some species of Solanaceae in Egypt. Al Azhar Bull of Sci. 2018;29(1):43-56.
Schachtman DP, Kumar R, Schroeder JI, Marsh EL. Molecular and functional characterisation of a novel low‐affinity cation transporter (LCT1) in higher plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 1997;94:11079-11084.
Johansson E, Nilsson, Mazhar H, Skerritt J, MacRitchie F, Svensson G. Seasonal effects on storage proteins and gluten strength in four swedish wheat cultivars. J of Sci Food and Agric. 2002,;82:1305-1311.
Jung YJ, Nou S, Kang KK. Over expression of Oshsp16.9 gene encoding small heat shock protein enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses in rice. Plant Breed Biotech. 2014;2(4):370-379.
Johansson E, Prieto-Linde ML, Svensson G, Jönsson JÖ. Influences of cultivar, cultivation year and fertilizer rate on amount of protein groups and amount and size distribution of mono- and polymeric proteins in wheat. The J of Agric Sci. 2003;140(3):275-284.
Arif M, Pauls KP. Properties of plant proteins. Ch. 8, In: G. Chen, R. Weselake, S. Singer (eds.), Plant Bioproducts. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature; 2018.
Vierling E. The roles of heat shock proteins in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 1991;42:579-620.
Turan S, Cornish K, Kumar S. Review article salinity tolerance in plants. Breeding and genetic engineering. Austr J of Crop Sci. 2012;6:1337-1348.