Proximate Composition, Comparative Phytochemical Analysis, and HPLC Profiling of Various Solvent Extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis Leaves

Nsofor Benedicta Chineze

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka 420110, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Nwankwo Valerie Ezinne

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka 420110, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Obidiegwu Onyeka Chinwuba

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka 420110, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Eze Peter Maduabuchi

Department of Environmental Health Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka 420110, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Abba Chika Christiana *

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka 420110, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Choosing the right solvent in herbal preparation is very important for extracting bioactive compounds from medicinal plant, as it greatly affects the yield and quality of phytochemicals obtained. This study aimed to investigate the proximate composition, phytochemical analysis and HPLC profiling of various solvents extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis leaves, a medicinal plant used in herbal remedies. The dried leaves of Anthocleista djalonensis were analyzed for their nutritional profile using standard methods. The leaves were then extracted by maceration using three different solvents: 95% analytical ethanol, hot distilled water, and local gin (78% alcohol). Various phytochemicals in the extracts were identified and quantified using standard analytical methods. Additionally, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to compare the chemical compositions of the extracts, using a reverse-phase C18 column and UV detection at 254nm. The results of the proximate analysis revealed good nutritional value, with protein (15.90%), moisture content (9.08%), total ash (10.37%), crude fibre (4.00%), crude fat (2.40%), carbohydrate (61.53%), and an energy value of 331.33 KJ. All tested phytochemicals were found in the ethanol and local gin extracts, while the distilled water extract showed the absence of terpenoids and steroids. In the quantitative analysis, the local gin extract had the highest concentrations of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. On the other hand, the HPLC fingerprint analysis identified seventeen (17), twelve (12), and nine (9) compounds in ethanol, local gin and water extracts respectively. Four (4) shared peaks with similar retention time were observed across all extracts, indicating the presence of common phytocompounds. In conclusion, this study shows that Anthocleista djalonensis leaves have good nutritional values, suggesting their potential as dietary phytonutrient. Local gin stands out as the best solvent among those tested for extracting beneficial compounds from Anthocleista djalonensis leaves supporting its traditional use as solvent in herbal preparation.

Keywords: Proximate composition, Anthocleista djalonensis, extracts, phytochemicals, HPLC, local gin

How to Cite

Chineze , Nsofor Benedicta, Nwankwo Valerie Ezinne, Obidiegwu Onyeka Chinwuba, Eze Peter Maduabuchi, and Abba Chika Christiana. 2024. “Proximate Composition, Comparative Phytochemical Analysis, and HPLC Profiling of Various Solvent Extracts of Anthocleista Djalonensis Leaves”. Asian Plant Research Journal 12 (4):35-47.


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