A Review on the Chemical Constituents, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidant Agents from Combretum Genus

Jude Ibeabuchi Ali

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, Nigeria.

Felix Keneolisa Asogwa *

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, Nigeria.

Celestine Obiora Ugwu

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, Nigeria.

Hannah Ndidiamaka Okorie

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, Nigeria.

Treasure Nonye Ujam

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani, Nigeria.

Onyeka Chinwuba Obidiegwu

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Festus BC Okoye

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Many diseases are treated using medicinal plants because they contain components that have therapeutic properties. The prevention and treatment of diseases linked to oxidative stress depend heavily on antioxidants. With over 20 genera and 600 species, the Combretaceae family is a vast group of plants that is distributed tropically throughout the world, with centers of diversity in Africa and Asia. In traditional medicine, certain species of Combretum are widely used as diuretics and to treat bleeding, diarrhea, infections, diabetes, malaria, and inflammation. This work is a review of Combretum species that have been assessed for their biological activity. It is imperative that more research be done on Combretum species in order to generate novel therapeutic options that could potentially enhance the well-being of individuals with a range of ailments.

Keywords: Terpenoids, flavonoids, stilbens, oxidative stress, inflammation

How to Cite

Ali , Jude Ibeabuchi, Felix Keneolisa Asogwa, Celestine Obiora Ugwu, Hannah Ndidiamaka Okorie, Treasure Nonye Ujam, Onyeka Chinwuba Obidiegwu, and Festus BC Okoye. 2024. “A Review on the Chemical Constituents, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Agents from Combretum Genus”. Asian Plant Research Journal 12 (3):52-61. https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2024/v12i3253.


Download data is not yet available.


Yahaya MF, Osemeahon SA, Shagal MH, Maitera ON, Dass PM, Yelwa JM. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity profiles and chemical compositions of ethanolic extracts of Ficus polita and Ficus thonningii Plant; 2021.

Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts of Carissa opaca fruits. Food Chemistry. 2010;122(4): 1205-11.

Kubitzki K. Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales Pp...(The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 2007;9.

Jordaan M, Van Wyk AEB, Maurin O. A conspectus of Combretum (Combretaceae) in southern Africa, with taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on species and sections; 2011.

Van Wyk B. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa: Penguin Random House South Africa; 2013.

Neuwinger HD. African traditional medicine: A dictionary of plant use and applications. With supplement: search system for diseases: Medpharm; 2000.

Fyhrquist P, Mwasumbi L, Hæggström CA, Vuorela H, Hiltunen R, Vuorela P. ethnobotanical and antimicrobial investigation on some species of terminalia and combretum (combretaceae) growing in Tanzania. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;79(2):169-77.

Gathirwa JW, Rukunga G, Mwitari PG, Mwikwabe N, Kimani C, Muthaura C, et al. Traditional herbal antimalarial therapy in Kilifi district, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;134(2):434-42.

Nguta J, Mbaria J, Gakuya D, Gathumbi P, Kiama S. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;128(2):424-32.

Sini J, Nwodo O, Alumanah E. MRP; 2017.

Codo Toafode NM, Oppong Bekoe E, Vissiennon Z, Ahyi V, Vissiennon C, Fester K. Ethnomedicinal information on plants used for the treatment of bone fractures, wounds, and sprains in the northern region of the republic of benin. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2022.

Ejidike IP, Mtunzi FM, Ledwaba I, Phele MJ, Ejidike OM, Ogunleye O, et al. Combretum species around Africa as alternative medicine: Ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical importance. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2023; 13(8):012-29.

Ahmed AS, McGaw LJ, Elgorashi EE, Naidoo V, Eloff JN. Polarity of extracts and fractions of four Combretum (Combretaceae) species used to treat infections and gastrointestinal disorders in southern African traditional medicine has a major effect on different relevant In vitro activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;154(2):339-50.

Roy S, Gorai D, Acharya R, Roy R. Combretum (Combretaceae): Biological activity and phytochemistry. American Journal of Pharm Research. 2014;4(11): 5,266-99.

Marquardt P, Seide R, Vissiennon C, Schubert A, Birkemeyer C, Ahyi V, et al. Phytochemical characterization and in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Combretum collinum Fresen leaves extracts from Benin. Molecules. 2020;25(2):288.

Bekele B, Lemma B. Bioactive compounds from ten species of the genus Combretum. Int J Chem Sci. 2021;5:18-30.

de Oliveiraa MdCF, Limaa MAS, Barbosaa FG, Mafezolia J, Bandeirab MAM, Aguiarb WR. 10 Plants from the Caatinga. Brazilian Medicinal Plants. 2019;257.

Mawoza T, Ndove T. Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) Sond. (Combretaceae): A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Glob J Biol Agric Health Sci. 2015;4:105-9.

Silén H, Salih EY, Mgbeahuruike EE, Fyhrqvist P. Ethnopharmacology, Antimicrobial Potency, and Phytochemistry of African Combretum and Pteleopsis Species (Combretaceae): A Review. Antibiotics. 2023;12(2):264.

Suroowan S, Pynee K, Mahomoodally M. A comprehensive review of ethnopharmacologically important medicinal plant species from Mauritius. South African Journal of Botany. 2019;122: 189-213.

Banik BK, Sahoo BM, Tiwari A. Terpenoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Medicinal Effects, and Ethno-pharmacology: CRC Press; 2022.

Alamgir A, Alamgir A. Secondary metabolites: Secondary metabolic products consisting of C and H; C, H, and O; N, S, and P elements; and O/N heterocycles. Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and their Extracts: Volume 2: Phytochemistry and Bioactive Compounds. 2018;165-309.

Oluyemi WM, Samuel BB, Kaehlig H, Zehl M, Parapini S, D'Alessandro S, et al. Antiplasmodial activity of triterpenes isolated from the methanolic leaf extract of Combretum racemosum P. Beauv. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020;247:112203.

Dawe A, Pierre S, Tsala DE, Habtemariam S. Phytochemical constituents of Combretum Loefl.(Combretaceae). Pharmaceutical Crops. 2013;4:38-59.

Umoh SD, Bojase G, Masesane IB, Loeto D, Majinda RT. A comprehensive review of Combretum flavonoids and their biological activities: An update between 1990 and 2022. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2023;108:104644.

Ngameni B, Fotso GW, Kamga J, Ambassa P, Abdou T, Fankam AG, et al. Flavonoids and related compounds from the medicinal plants of Africa. Medicinal plant research in Africa: Elsevier; 2013;301-50.

Katerere DR, Gray AI, Nash RJ, Waigh RD. Phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations of stilbenoids and flavonoids isolated from three species of Combretaceae. Fitoterapia. 2012;83(5): 932-40.

Bento C, Gonçalves AC, Jesus F, Simões M, Silva LR. Phenolic compounds: Sources, properties and applications. Bioactive Compounds: Sources, Properties and Applications; Porter R, Parker N, Eds. 2017; 271-99.

Karatoprak GŞ, Küpeli Akkol E, Genç Y, Bardakcı H, Yücel Ç, Sobarzo-Sánchez E. Combretastatins: An overview of structure, probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Molecules. 2020; 25(11):2560.

Teka T, Zhang L, Ge X, Li Y, Han L, and Yan X. Stilbenes: Source plants, chemistry, biosynthesis, pharmacology, application and problems related to their clinical Application-A comprehensive review. Phytochemistry. 2022;197:113128.

Tsopmo A, Awah FM, Kuete V. Lignans and stilbenes from African medicinal plants. Medicinal plant research in Africa: Elsevier. 2013;435-78.

Aranda-Rivera AK, Cruz-Gregorio A, Arancibia-Hernández YL, Hernández-Cruz EY, Pedraza-Chaverri J. RONS and oxidative stress: An overview of basic concepts. Oxygen. 2022;2(4):437-78.

Kumar V. A review on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Era's Journal of Medical Research. 2018;5(1).

Kumar S, Lemos M, Sharma M, Shriram V. Free radicals and antioxidants. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2011;2(1):129-35.

Moriasi G, Ireri A, Ngugi MP. In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum.). Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine. 2020;25:2515690X20937988.

Neha K, Haider MR, Pathak A, Yar MS. Medicinal prospects of antioxidants: A review. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2019;178:687-704.

Kim M, Jang H, Kim W, Kim D, Park JH. Therapeutic Applications of Plant-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Antioxidants for Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases. Antioxidants. 2023;12(6):1286.

Hano C, Tungmunnithum D. Plant polyphenols, more than just simple natural antioxidants: Oxidative stress, aging and age-related diseases. MDPI. 2020;26.

Singh G, Passsari AK, Leo VV, Mishra VK, Subbarayan S, Singh BP, et al. Evaluation of phenolic content variability along with antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic potential of selected traditional medicinal plants from India. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7:407.

Men TT, Yen HK, Lan HTC, Son NH, Khang DT, Tuan NT. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities of Ethanol Extract from Combretum quadrangulare Collected in Vietnam; 2022.

Yen HK, Tuan NT, Thanh NQC, Tran TTT, Men TT. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Spirolobium cambodianum Baill. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry; 2024.

Pilaquinga F, Morey J, Fernandez L, Espinoza-Montero P, Moncada-Basualto M, Pozo-Martinez J, et al. Determination of antioxidant activity by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC-FL), Cellular Antioxidant Activity (CAA), electrochemical and microbiological analyses of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of solanum mammosum L. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2021;5879-94.

Nopsiri W, Chansakaow S, Putiyanan S, Natakankitkul S, Santiarworn D. Antioxidant and anticancer activities from leaf extracts of four Combretum species from Northern Thailand. Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences. 2014;13(2):195-205.

Das A, Samal KC, Bastia AK. Chemo-profiling and assessment of antioxidant activity and antibacterial potentials of selected plants of family Combretaceae. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;10(2):030-9.

Bhatnagar S, Sahoo S, Mohapatra AK, Behera DR. Phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic activity of medicinal plant Combretum roxburghii (Family: Combretaceae). International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2012;4(1):193-202.

Parusnath M, Naidoo Y, Singh M, Kianersi F, Dewir YH. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of the Leaf and Stem Extracts of Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don.) Engl. and Diels. Plants. 2023;12(9):1757.

Mariod A, Matthäus B, Hussein I. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Combretum hartmannianum and Guiera senegalensis on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2006;20-8.

Coulidiati T, Millogo-Kone H, Lamien-Meda A, Yougbaré-Ziébrou M, Millogo-Rasolodimby J, Nacoulma O. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Combretum species from Burkina Faso. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 2011; 5(1):42-53.

Coulidiati T, Millogo-Kone H, Lamien-Meda A, Lamien C, Lompo M, Kiendrebeogo M, et al. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Combretum nioroense Aubrév. Ex Keay (Combretaceae). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS. 2009;12(3): 264-9.

Rademan S, Anantharaju PG, Madhunapantula SV, Lall N. The anti-proliferative and antioxidant activity of four indigenous South African plants. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2019;16(1): 13-23.

Bekele B. Phytochemical investigation of the root of combretum paniculatum; 2018.

Ayertey F, Ofori-Attah E, Antwi S, Amoa-Bosompem M, Djameh G, Lartey NL, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of action of ethanolic leaf extract of Morinda lucida Benth. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 2021;11(3): 249-58.

Halici Z, Dengiz GO, Odabasoglu F, Suleyman H, Cadirci E, Halici M. Amiodarone has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties: An experimental study in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2007;566(1-3):215-21.

Chouhan S, Guleria S. Anti-inflammatory activity of medicinal plants: Present status and future perspectives. Botanical Leads for Drug Discovery. 2020;67-92.

Patrignani P, Tacconelli S, Bruno A, Sostres C, Lanas A. Managing the adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology. 2011;4(5):605-21.

Muhammad BY, Shaban NZ, Elrashidy FH, Ghareeb DA. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antiproliferative and Antimicrobial Activities of Combretum glutinosum and Gardenia aqualla Extracts in vitro. Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 2019;9(2):66-72.

Sene M, Ndiaye D, Gassama A, Barboza FS, Mbaye MD, Sy GY. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activities of triterpenoid molecules isolated from the leaves of Combretum glutinosum Perr. Ex DC (Combretaceae); 2018.

Olajide OA, Makinde JM, Okpako DT. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory property of the extract of Combretum micranthum G. Don (Combretaceae). Inflammopharmacology. 2003;11:293-8.

Ogbu CP, Okagu IU, Nwodo OFC. Anti-inflammatory activities of crude ethanol extract of Combretum zenkeri Engl. and Diels leaves. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2020;29:397-409.

Akoto CO, Adzimah ME, Forkuoh AY, Obedi P, Oguns J, Boahen FO. Research Article Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anthelmintic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities and FTIR Analysis of Combretum nioroense Stem Bark; 2023.

Hamad KM, Sabry MM, Elgayed SH, El Shabrawy A-R, El-Fishawy AM, Jaleel GAA. Anti-inflammatory and phytochemical evaluation of Combretum aculeatum Vent growing in Sudan. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2019; 242:112052.

Uwaya DO, Idu M, osaruese Ikonomwan J, Gabriel BO. Anti-arthritic potential of aqueous leaf extract of Combretum platypterum (Welw) Hutch and Dalziel (Combretaceae) on rats. Journal of Current Biomedical Research. 2022;2(5, September-October):440-55.