Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemicals Screening of Aqueous, Methanol and Hexane Leaves Extracts of Senna Occidentalis

Alkali K. *

Department of G.S.T and Remedial, Mohammed Goni College of Legal and Islamic Studies, Nigeria.

Dikwa K. B.

Department of Biological Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria.

G.A. Ajibade

Department of Medical Laboratory, University of Maidugur, Nigeria.

Y Magaji

Department of Medical Laboratory, University of Maidugur, Nigeria.

Abdulhamid M.B

Department of Medical Laboratory, University of Maidugur, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The Senna occidentalis tree is an incredible plant with incredible antimicrobial, antifungal and antimalarial activities used traditionally. The study was carried out to determine the phytochemical content responsible for these activities  Fresh leaves were collected, aqueous, methanolic and hexane extracts of leaves were prepared, and the extracts were screened for phytochemical constituents using standard methods. Results of the phytochemical screening of all the crude extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, phenol, alkaloid and flavonoid. In aqeuose extract, flavonoid show higher content of 2,47%, followed by tepernoid with 2.27%, methanol with higher content of tepernoid with 2.60%, and hexane with the highest in tepernoid with only 2.38%. Based on the present study, it can be concluded that the extracts of Senna occidentalis are rich source of phytochemicals and F flavonoid is found to be most abundant phytochemical presence of bioactive constituents that could be the reason for pharmacological activity that is used traditionally by many people as an alternative treatment for a variety of health diseases.

Keywords: Senna occidentalis, phytochemical, aqueous, methanol, hexane


How to Cite

Alkali K., Dikwa K. B., G.A. Ajibade, Y Magaji, and Abdulhamid M.B. 2024. “Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemicals Screening of Aqueous, Methanol and Hexane Leaves Extracts of Senna Occidentalis”. Asian Plant Research Journal 12 (3):27-35. https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2024/v12i3250.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

LPWG The Legume Phylogeny Working Group. A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny. Taxon. 2017;66 (1): 44–77. DOI: 10.12705/661.3

Abd-Alla MH, Al-Amri SM, El-Enany A.-WE. Enhancing Rhizobium–Legume Symbiosis and Reducing Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Are Potential Options for Mitigating Climate Change. Agriculture, 2023;13(11):2092. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13112092

Marazzi B, Peter KE, Luciano PD, Elena C. Phylogenetic relationships within Senna (Leguminosae, Cassiinae) based on three chloroplast DNA regions: patterns in the evolution of floral symmetry and extrafloral nectaries. American Journal of Botany. 2006;93(2):288–303

Shivjeet S, Sandeep KS, Ashutosh Y. Review on cassia species: Pharmacological, traditional and medicinal aspects in various countries. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics. 2013;1:291-312

Kaur IA, Hmad S, Harikumar SL. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Cassia occidentalis Linn; International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2014;6(2): 151-155.

Davariya VS, Vala AK. Antifunal activity of crude extract of Cassia occidentalis, International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry and Pharmacol. 2011;1 (2):36-38.

Emmanuel S, Rani MS, Sreekant MR. Antidiabeticactivity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn). Instreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: dosedependentstudies.International Journal of Pharmacology and Biological Sciences. 2010;1:15-25

Singh PS, Salwan C, Mann AS. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry. 2011;1(4):904-913

Verma L, Khatri A, Kauirik B, Patil UK, Pawar RS. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacol. 2011;42(4):224-228

Srinivasan D, Nathan S, Suresh T, Perumalsamy PP. Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plant used in folkloric medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacol. 2010;74:217-220.

Arya V, Yadav S, Kumar S, Yadav JP. Antimicrobial activity of Cassia occidentalis (L). Leaf against various Human Pathogenic Microbes, Life Sciences Medicine Research. 2010;9:1-11

Mazmumder MP, Percha V, Farswan M, Upaganlawar A. Cassia: A wonder gift to medical science. International Journal of Community Pharmacy. 2008;1:16-38.

Khalid W , Saeed F, Arshad MS, Afzaal M, Arshad MU. Senna: As immunity boosting herb against Covid-19 and several other diseases. Journal of Herbal Medicine 2023;37:1-8. 100626

Patil UH, Gaikwad DK. Phytochemical evaluation and bactericidal potential of Terminalia arjuna stem bark. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2010;2(3):614-619.

Costa Cordeiro BMPND, Lima Santos MR, Assunção Ferreira LC, Corrêa de Araújo AR Carvalho Junior AD, Conceição Santos AP, Oliveira AG, Silva EP, Silva Falcão MT, Santos Correia JRG, Silva Almeida LCN, Silva LA, Lira Soares TH, Napoleão MV, Silva PM, Guedes Paiva. Hexane extract from Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae) leaves has antioxidant activity and is an anti-Candida agent by causing mitochondrial and lysosomal damages. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018;18:284

Wadood A, Ghufran M, Jamal SB, Naeem J. Phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants occurring in local area of mardan. Analytical Biochemistry. 2013;4(2): 1-3

Efe M, Omwirhiren SA. James, Abass AO. The phytochemical properties and antimicrobial potentials of aqueous and methanolic seed extract of cola nitida (Vent.) and Cola cuminate (Beauvoir) grown in South West, Nigeria. Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;2(12):354-363

Ayoola GA, Coker HA, Adesegun SA, Adepoju-Bello AA, Obaweya K, Ezennia EC, Atangbayila TO. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of Some Selected Medicinal Plants Used for Malaria Therapy in Southwestern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7(3):1019-1024

Gul R, Jan SU, Faridullah S, Sherani S, Jahan N. Preliminary phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of alkaloids, and antioxidant activity of crude plant extracts from ephedra intermedia indigenous to Balochistan, The Scientific World Journal. 2017;7. Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/587364

Selvakumar S, Vimalanban S, Balakrishnan G. Quantitative determination of phytochemical constituents from Anisomeles malabarica. MOJ Bioequiv 2019;6(2):19‒21

Muhammad SA, Abubaka SM. Qualitative and quantitative determination of phytochemicals in aqueous extract of Chrysophyllum albidum Seed Kernel. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2016;13(2):1201-1206.

Ghorai NS, Chakraborty S, Gucchait SK, Saha, Biswas S. Estimation of total Terpenoids concentration in plant tissues using a monoterpene, Linalool as standard reagent: Protocol Exchange. 2017;1-6

Madhu M, Sailaja V, TNVSS Satyadev, Satyanarayana MV. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plant species by using various organic solvents, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2016;5(2): 25-29.

Sakulpanich A, Gritsanapan W. Extraction Method for High Content of anthraquinones from cassia fistula pods. J Health Res. 2008;22(4):167-172

Sulieman AE, Issa FM, Elkhalifa EA. Quantitative determination of tannin content in some sorghum cultivars and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2007;2:284-28.

Egharevba HO, Odigwe AC, Abdullahi MS, Okwute SK, kogun JI, Phytochemical analysis and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of Cassia occidentalis L. (whole plant); New York Science Journal. 2013; 3(10):74-81

Tamasi AA, Shoge MO, Adegboyega TT, Chukwuma EC. Phytochemical analysis and in-vitro antimicrobial screening of the leaf extract of Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae). Asian J Nat Prod Biochem. 2021;19:2:58-65

Oyun JF, Oyetayo VO. Assessment of the Preservative Efficacy of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. And Psidium guajava L. Leaf Extracts on Capsicum annuum L. (Bell Pepper). South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology. 2020;7(2):19-33

Alkali K, Abdullahi K, Mshelia HE, Yahaya MA, Abubakar N and Tarbutu AG. Comparative Study of Antiplasdodial Activity of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Azadirachta indica (Juss), Senna occidentalis (Linn) and Standard Antimalaria on Multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum (Laveran). Research Journal of Zoology. 2018;1(3):5.

Abdulrazaq A, Abdulkadi B, Isyaku NT, Yahaya M, Badru OA, Adamu L, Alkali K. In Vitro Antimalarial activity of extracts of some indigenous plant species in Kebbi State. UMYU Journal of Microbiology Research. 2020;5(2):1- 10.

Daskum AM, Chessed G, Qadeer MA, Ling LY. Phytochemical screening, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and in vitro antiplasmodial analysis of Senna siamea leaves as antimalarial, Yobe State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2020;41(1):60-67.

Ujah II, Onyishi CK, Onovo OE. Phytochemical and vitamin constituents of Senna occidentalis Linn (Uzaki Mma). GSC Advanced Research and Reviews. 2022;11(01):011–020.

Nonita PP, Mylene MU. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical screening of four philippine medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2010;4:407-414.

Garba S, Okeniyi SO. Antimicrobial activities of total alkaloids extracted from some Nigerian Medicinal plants. J. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2012;4(3):60-63 .

Ajuru MG, Williams LF, Ajuru G. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of some plants used in ethnomedicine in the Niger DeltaRegion of Nigeria. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2017;5(5):198-205.

Khalid W, Saeed F, Arshad MS, Afzaal M, Arshad MU. Senna: As immunity boosting herb against Covid-19 and several other diseases. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2023;37:1-8. 100626.

Mahima AK, Verma A, Kumar A, Rahal R and Deb SK. Immumomodulatary therapeutic potential of herbal, traditional and ethnovertinary medicine. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 2013;15: 754-774.