Floristic Composition and Species Diversity of Wintering Herbs in Blue pine Forest of Thimphu District, Bhutan

Chungdu Tshering *

Department of Forest and Park Services, Ugyen Wangchuck Institute for Forest Research and Training, Bhutan.

Tshering Wangmo

Bachelors of Science in Forestry Science, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Punakha, Bhutan.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims:  This study was carried out to document wintering herbs species in the blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) forest of Kawang Gewog under Thimphu district, Bhutan. To generate baseline data on species diversity and composition of the winter herbaceous layer in the blue pine forests of the study area.

Study Design: To evaluate the floral diversity and composition of herbs, stratified random sampling was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Thimphu district within the altitudinal range of 2400 m to 2700 m A.S.L. The fieldwork was conducted during the month of December to January 2019 and during March 2020.

Methodology: Four line transects were established randomly, with sampling points placed at 25-meter intervals along the transect. For adequate data collection, three 3X3 meter quadrats were laid along a straight line perpendicular to the transect, using species-area Type I curves (strictly nested curves). Each quadrat was then divided into 100 equal sub-quadrats, with a distance of 5 meters separating each quadrat.

Results: A total of 60 herb species belonging to 46 genera and 22 families. The Shannon-wiener index of species diversity (H’) showed 1.73 value suggesting higher diversity in the study site with an altitude of 2600 m to 2700 m compared to other sites with an altitude range of 2400 m to 2500 m, H’ value of 1.59.

Conclusion: The study conducted reports the finding on diversity and the composition of herbs occurring in the winter season from Kawang Gewog under Thimphu district. The present study also discusses the diversity and evenness of herbs influenced by elevation and anthropogenic influences.

Keywords: Bhutan, blue pine, herbs, diversity, important value index, species richness, thimphu, wintering herb


How to Cite

Tshering , C., & Wangmo, T. (2023). Floristic Composition and Species Diversity of Wintering Herbs in Blue pine Forest of Thimphu District, Bhutan. Asian Plant Research Journal, 11(3), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2023/v11i3210

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Scholar MD, Gilliam FS. The ecological significance of the herbaceous layer in temperate forest ecosystems the ecological significance of the herbaceous layer in temperate forest ecosystems. 2007;845–858.

Lalramnghinglova H. Phyto-diversity diversity study of understorey herbaceous plants within the sub-tropical forest in Pachhunga University College College. 2017;6(5):27–33.

Gilliam F. The ecological significance of the herbaceous layer in temperate forest ecosystems. 2007;57(10): 845–858.

Rana S, Bargali K, Bargali SS. Assessment of plant diversity, regeneration status, biomass and carbon stock in a Central Himalayan cypress forest. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2015;7(6):321-329.

Karki H, Rana P, Bargali K, Bargali SS. Effect of biotic disturbances on herbaceous vegetation in cypress mixed oak forests of Central Himalaya, India Effect of Biotic Disturbances on Herbaceous Vegetation in Cypress Mixed Oak Forests of Central Himalaya, India. (August); 2016. DOI:https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.11.2.09

Levin DA, Wilson AC. Rates of evolution in seed plants: Net increase in diversity of chromosome numbers and species numbers through time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1976;73:2086–2090.

Jolls CL. Populations of and threats to rare plants of the herb layer: More challenges and opportunities for conservation biologists. Pages 105–162 in Gilliam FS, Roberts MR, eds. The Herbaceous Layer in Forests of Eastern North America. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. Keeley JE, Fotheringham CJ. Plot Shape Effects on plant; 2005.

Vilardell LV. (n.d.). Climate change effects on wildfire hazard in the wildland-urban interface–blue pine forests in the Himalayas.

Tenzin K. The management of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) in secondary forest in Bhutan. Master thesis, The University of Edinburgh; 2001.

Gratzer G, Darabant A, Chhetri PB, Rai PB, Eckmüllner O. Interspecific variation in the response of growth, crown morphology, and survivorship to light of six tree species in the conifer belt of the Bhutan Himalayas. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 2004;34:1093-1107.

Dukpa D, Cook ER, Krusic PJ, Rai P, Darabant A, Tshering U. Applied dendroecology informs the sustainable management of Blue Pine forests in Bhutan. Dendrochronologia; 2018.

Gyeltshen C. Fire risks in blue pine forests of Bhutan. Master thesis, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (Boku), Vienna, Austria; 2016.

National Statistics Bureau. Annual Dzongkhag Statistics 2010: Dzongkhag Administration Thimphu; 2010.

Manly BFJ. Standard sampling methods and analysis. In: B. F. J. Manly and J. A. N. Alberto. Introduction to Ecological Sampling. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2015;7-32.

Henderson PA, Southwood R. Ecological methods, 4th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Chichester, West Sussex; 2016.

Scheiner SM. Six types of species-area curves. 2003;12:441–447. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822X.2003.00061.x

Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat Y, Pangtey YP. Comparative study of herb layer diversity in pine forest stands at different altitudes of Central Himalaya. 2004;2(2):15–24.

Cain AS. The Species-Area Curve ’. 1938;19(3):573–581.

Kent M, Coker P. Vegetation description and analysis: a practical approach, 1st ed. John Wiley and Sons, Singapore; 1993.

Curtis JT. The Vegetation of wisconsin: An ordination of plant communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 1959.

Baxter J. (n.d.). Vegetation Sampling Using the Quadrat Method. 1–3.

Zhang JT, Zhang F. Diversity and composition of plant functional groups in mountain forests of the Lishan nature reserve, North China. Botanical Studies. 2007;48:339–348.

Sang W. Plant diversity patterns and their relationship with soil and climatic factors along an altitudinal gradient in the middle Tianshan mountain area, Xinjiang, China. Ecological Research. 2009;24:303–314.

Rahman IU, Khan N, Ali K. Classification and ordination of understory vegetation using multivariate techniques in the Pinus wallichiana forests of Swat; 2017. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-017-1431-2

Behera MD, Kushwaha SPS, Roy PS, Srivastava S, Singh TP, Dubey RC. Comparing structure and composition of coniferous forests in Subansiri district, Arunachal Pradesh. Curr Sci. 2002;82(1):70–76

Bharali S, Paul A, Khan ML, Singha LB. Species diversity and community structure of a temperate mixed Rhododendron Forest along an altitudinal gradient in West Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Nature and Science. 2011;9(12).

Gairola S, Rawal RS, Todaria NP. Forest vegetation patterns along an altitudinal gradient in sub-alpine zone of West Himalaya, India. African Journal of Plant Science. 2008; 2(6):42-48.

Rawat VS, Chandra J. Tree layer vegetational analysis in temperate forest of Uttarakhand. Nature and Science. 2012; 10(10):167-171.

Bhandari BS, Tiwari SC. Dominance and diversity along an altitude gradient in a montane forest of Garhwal Himalaya. Proc. Indian Natn Sci Acad. 1999;64:437-446.