Evaluation of the Phytochemical and Proximate Composition of Fruit of False Yam (Icacina senegalensis) and African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum)

Kenneth U. Ekwealor

Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Chisom F. Iroka

Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Uche P. Nwaogaranya

Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Clara N. Ikegbunam

Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Victor S. Njom

Department of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The biochemical composition of the seed, fruit-pulp and fruit-skin of false yam and African star apple was carried out in this study using standard techniques. The result of the mean phytochemical composition of Icacina senegalensis and Chrysophyllum albidum fruits revealed higher composition of tannin in the pulp, seed of I. senegalensis, while alkaloid and flavonoid was higher in composition in the pulp (24.22±0.141mg/100g and 16.53±0.021mg/100g), seed (25.35± 0.021mg/100g and 18.27±0.014mg/100g)and bark (24.62±0.085mg/100g and 16.94± 0.035 mg/100g) of Chrysophyllum albidum. The results were significantly different at p<0.05. The result of the percentage proximate composition of Icacina senegalensis and Chrysophyllum albidum fruits revealed higher percentage composition of carbohydrate in the pulp (51.52±0.127% and 57.02±0.141%), seed (52.42±0.085% and 56.1±0.198%) and bark (54.89±0.092% and 58.02±0.113%) of I. senegalensis and C. albidum. The result revealed high percentage composition of fat in the pulp (26.33±0.028% and 9.63±0.028%), seed (25.69±0.014% and 10.24±0.035%) and bark (23.14±0.028% and 9.28±0.071%) of I. senegalensis and C. albidum respectively.  Moisture content was also high in the pulp (12.37±0.014% and 8.35±0.042%), seed (11.45±0.021% and 7.36±0.042%) and bark (11.13±0.014% and 5.23±0.028%) of I. senegalensis and C. albidum respectively. The result of the mean mineral composition of Icacina senegalensis and Chrysophyllum albidum fruits revealed high composition of calcium in the pulp, seed and bark of I. senegalensis and C. albidum respectively. The result also revealed high composition of magnesium in the pulp, seed and bark of I. senegalensis and C. albidum.  The results from this work suggest that Icacina senegalensis and Chrysophyllum albidum may find their use in food/feed formulation/supplementation as well as nutraceutical/medicinal and industrial uses.

Keywords: Biochemical, false yam, African star apple, seed, pulp, fruit-skin, mineral, proximate


How to Cite

Ekwealor , K. U., Iroka , C. F., Nwaogaranya , U. P., Ikegbunam , C. N., & Njom , V. S. (2023). Evaluation of the Phytochemical and Proximate Composition of Fruit of False Yam (Icacina senegalensis) and African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum). Asian Plant Research Journal, 11(1), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2023/v11i1203

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE and Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian Medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4:685-688.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis.2nd Edition. Chapman and Hall Publishers. London. 1998;453.

Sofowara A. Medicinal plants and Traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1993;289.

Grahame-Smith DG, Aronson JK. The Oxford Textbook of C linical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. Third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Ibadan. Spectrum Books Limited. 2008;250-260.

Dalziel JM. Icacina. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Oxford University press, London. 1990; pp: 291.

Irvine FR. Plants of the gold-coast Oxford University press, London. 2001;236.

Tourner YL. Une plant Clamidon de I’ouest Africain: Ie bankanas (Icacina senegalensis). I er. Conference internationale, dAfrique Quest, Dakari Institute francais d Afrique Voire. 1978;2: 100-103.

Dei HK. Poultry science, department of animal science, University for developmental studies, Tamale, Chana at June. 2011;90(6):1239-44.

Bada SO. Preliminary Information on the Ecology of Chrysophillum albidum G. Don, in West and Central Africa. In: Proceedings of a National workshop on the potentials of the star apply in Nigeria. Denton; 2017.

Amusa NA, Ashaye OA, Oladapo MO. Biodeterioration of African star apple (Chrysphylum albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value. African Journal Biotechnology. 2013;2:56-59.

Adepoju O Adenijitpo. Nutrient composition and micronutri¬ent potential of three wildly grown varieties of African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) From Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science. 2012;6:344-351.

Ibrahim HO, Osilesi O, Adebawo OO, Onajobi FD and Karigidi KO. Nutrients Compositions and Phytochemical Contents of Edible Parts of Chrysophyllum albidum Fruit. Journal of Nutrition and Food Science. 2017;7:564–579.

Trease GE, Evans WC. A text book of pharmacology, Edn 14, Bailliere Tindall Ltd, London, 421; 1996.

Pearson D. Laboratory techniques in Food Analysis Edn 1, Butterworth, London; 1976.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Method of Analysis. 13th ed. Washington D.C. 2000;44.

James CS. Analytical chemistry of foods 1st ed. Chapman and Hall. N.Y. 1995;82-83.

Ebana RU, Essien AI, Ekpa OD. Nutritional and Potential Medicinal value of the leaves of Lasianthera Africana (Beauv): Alkaloid, Tannin and saponin contents of some Nigeria Medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Aromatic plant science. 1995; 23:344-349.

Iroka CF, Okereke CN and Okeke CU. Comparative Photochemical and Proximate Analyses on Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn. and Bombax buonopozense (P) Beanv., International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014;2(2):162-167.

Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and Vitamin content of indigenous spices of South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of sustenance of Africa Environment. 2004;6:30-34.

Stray F. The National Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants. Tiger Books International London. 1998; p72.

Kozioc MJ, Marcia. Chemical composition nutritional evaluation and economic prospects of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae). Economic Botany. 1998; 52:373-380.

Chavan JK, Kadam SS, Sahinche DK. Dietary tannins: Consequences and remedies. CRC Press. 1995;177.

Salah W, Miller NJ, Pagauga G. Tijburg G, Bonel AP Rice E, Evans C. Polyphenolic flavonoids as scavengers of aqueous phase radicals as chain breaking oxidant. Arch Biochem Bioech. 1995;2:339-346.

Dubrovsky BO. Steroids, Neuroactive Steroids in psychopathology. Progress in Neuropsychopharamacology and Biological psychiatry. 2005;29:169-192.

Okeke CU, Nwachukwu AC. Phytochemical and Proximate Analyses of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. (Euphorbiaceae). Nigeria Journal of Botany. 2009;22(1):215-222.

Hogan CM. Western Poison-Oak. Toxicodenron Diversilobum Global Twitcher. Edition Nickas Stromberg. 2008;400.

Kolawole SE and Obueh HO. Proximate and micronutrient compositions of someselected foods and diets in South–South Nigeria. Scholarly Journals of Biotechnology. 2012;1(3):45-48.

Isong EU, Essien IB. Nutritional and Nutrient Composition of Tree Varieties of Piper Species Plant. Food Human Nutrition. 1990;49:133-137.

Ukam NU. The Potentials of Some Lesser Known vegetables. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Science. 2008;29: 299-305.

Ilodibia CV, Ugwu RU, Okeke CU, Ezeabara CA, Okeke NF, Akachukwu EE, Aziagba BO. Determination of Proximate Composition of Various Parts of Two Dracaena Species. International Journal of Botany. 2014;10(1):37-41.

Okeke CU, Okeke PN, Iroka FC, Orji ME. Biochemical Studies of Different Parts of Afzelia africana Smith. African Journal of Agriculture and Food Science. 2021;4(4):11-24.

Dutta AC. Botany for Degree students Edn 16, Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 1981;708.

Roberts MF and Wink M. Introduction to Alkaloids. In: Alkaloids Biochemistry, Ecology and Medicinal Applications. Plenum Press, New York. 1998;1-6.