Effect of Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Maize [Zea mays (L.)] Hybrids at Luyengo, Middleveld of Eswatini

Main Article Content

Ndzimandze Sibonginkosi
Mabuza Mzwandile
Tana Tamado

Abstract

Maize is staple food and the most cultivated crop in Eswatini. However, its yield is very low partly due to use of non-optimum plant density for different maturity group maize varieties. Thus, an experiment was conducted at Luyengo, Middleveld of Eswatini during the 2018/2019 cropping season. The experiment consisted of factorial combinations of two varieties [SC 403 (early maturing) and PAN 53 (medium maturing)] and three plant densities (44444 plants/ha, 50000 plants/ha, 57143 plants/ha) in randomised complete block design in three replications. Results showed that medium maturing maize variety PAN 53 had higher leaf area, leaf area index, plant height, cob height (139.4 cm), days to 90% anthesis (69 days), dry biomass, thousand kernels mass (374.0 g), grain yield (43.1 t/ha), and stover mass (59.8 t/ha) than the early maturing variety SC 403. With respect to the effect of plant density, as the plant density increased from 44444 to 57143 plants/ha, leaf area, dry biomass at V12 and R5 growth stages, number of cobs per plant, grain yield, stover mass, and thousand kernels mass (g) were decreased while the leaf area index was increased. The interaction effects of variety and plant density were not significant on all the parameters recorded. Thus, it can be concluded that medium maturing variety PAN 53 and plant density of 44444 plants/ha (90 cm ´ 25 cm) are best options to maximum productivity of maize in the study area. However, it is recommended that the experiment be repeated with inclusion of more varieties and densities to reach at more conclusive recommendation.

Keywords:
Maize hybrids, PAN 53, plant density, SC 403, yield.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sibonginkosi, N., Mzwandile, M., & Tamado, T. (2020). Effect of Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Maize [Zea mays (L.)] Hybrids at Luyengo, Middleveld of Eswatini. Asian Plant Research Journal, 3(3-4), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2019/v3i3-430066
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ray DK, Ramankutty N, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA. Recent patterns of crop yield growth and stagnation. Nature Communications. 2012;3:1293.

Sihlongonyane MB, Masuku MB, Belete A. Economic efficiency of maize production in Swaziland: The case of Hhohho, Manzini and Shiselweni Regions. Research in Applied Economics. 2014;6(3):179-195.

FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics Data Base, Agricultural production indices. FAO, Rome, Italy; 2017.

Jettner R, Loss SP, Siddique KH, Martin LD. Responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to sowing rate in South-Western Australia. I. Seed yield and economic optimum plant density. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 1998;49:989-998.

Sangoi L, Graceietti MA, Rampazzo C, Bianchetti P. The response of Brazilian maize hybrids from different eras to changes in plant density. Field Crops Res. 2002;79:39-51.

Abuzar MR, Sadozai GU, Baloch MS, Baloch A, Shah IH, Javaid T, Hussain N. Effect of plant population densities on the yield of maize. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2011;21:692-695.

Liu W, Tollenaar AM, Smith G. Within row plant spacing variability does not affect maize yield. Agron. J. 2004;96:275-280.

Argenta G, Silva PR, Sangoi L. Maize plant arrangement: Analysis of the state of the art. Ciência Rural. 2001;31(6):1075-1084.

Jones JB. Agronomic handbook: Management of crops, soils and their fertility. CRC Press; 2002.

Chinyere P. Plant spacing, dry matter accumulation and yield of local and improved maize cultivars. International Journal of Agriculture and Environment. 2013;1:15-26.

Kamara AY, Menkir A, Kureh I, Omoigui LO, Ekeleme F. Performance of old and new maize hybrids grown at high plant densities in the tropical Guinea Savanna. Communications in Biometry and Crop Sci. 2006;1(1):41-48.

McCullough DE, Aguilera A, Tollenaar M. N uptake, N partitioning, and photosynthetic N-use efficiency of an old and a new maize hybrid. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 1994;74(3):479-484.

Dwyer LM, Stewart DW, Tollenaar M. Changes in plant density dependence of leaf photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids, 1959 to 1988. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 1991;71(1):1-11.

Edje OT, Ossom EM. Crop science handbook. Blue Moon Printers, Manzini, Swaziland; 2016.

Dwyer LM, Stewart DW. Leaf area development in field-grown maize. Agronomy Journal. 1986;78:334–343.

GENSTAT. Genstat for Windows 18th Edition. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK; 2015.

Ahmad AM, Bukhsh HA, Ahmad R, Malik AU, Hussain S, Ishaque M. Agro-physiological traits of three maize hybrids as influenced by varying plant density. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2010;20:34-39.

Sangakkara SF, Bandaranayake PS, Gajanayake JN, Stamp P. Plant populations and yield of rainfed maize growth in wet and dry seasons of the tropics. Maydica. 2004;49:83-88.

Imran S, Arif M, Khan A, Shah W, Abdul L, Ali Khan M. Effect of nitrogen levels and plant population on yield and yield components of maize. Advanced Crop Science Technology. 2015;3:170.

Williams MM. Agronomics and economics of plant population density on processing sweet corn. Field Crops Research. 2012;128:55-61.

Dinh HG, Sarobol ED, Sutkhet N. Effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer rate on growth, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of different maize hybrids under rainfed conditions in Southern Vietnam. Journal of Natural Science. 2015;49:1-12.

Azam S, Ali M, Amin M, Bibi Sarif M. Effect of plant population on maize hybrids. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 2007;2:14.

Raouf SS, Sedghi M, Gholipouri A. Effect of population density on yield and yield attributes of maize hybrids. Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2009;4(4):375-379.

Karasu A. Effect of nitrogen levels on grain yield and some attributes of some hybrid maize cultivars. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2012;18:42-48.

Zamir MSI, Ahmad AH, Javeed HMR, Latif T. Growth and yield behavior of two maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) towards different plant spacing. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova. 2011;146:33-40.

Adeniyan ON. Effect of different population densities and fertilizer rates on the performance of different maize varieties in two rain forest agro ecosystems of South West Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science. 2014;8(8):410-415.

Wang X, Chang J, Qin G, Zhang S, Cheng X, Li C. Analysis on yield components of elite maize variety Xundan 20 with super high yield potential. African Journal for Agriculture Research. 2011;24(6):5490-5495.

Nwokwu GN. Response of maize (Zea mays L) varieties to planting densities. OSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2016;9(10):01-06.

Tokatlis IS, Koutroubas SD. A review of maize hybrids dependence on high plant populations and its implications for crop yield stability. Field Crops Research. 2004;49:119-126.

Mohammad S, Jehan B, Sajjad A, Hamayoon K, Mohammad AK, Mohammad S. Effect of planting density on phenology, growth and yield of maize. Pakistan. Journal of Botany. 2012;44(2):691-696.

Aziz A, Hidayat UR, Najibullah K. Maize cultivar response to population density and planting date for grain and biomass yield. Sarhad J. Agric. 2007;23:25-30.

Asea G, Serumaga J, Mduruma Z, Kimenye L, Odeke M. Quality protein maize production and post-harvest handling handbook for east and central Africa: Association for strengthening agricultural research in the East and Central Africa, Entebbe, Uganda; 2014.

Ayman HA, Samier KA. Maize productivity as affected by plant density and nitrogen fertilizer. International Journal of Current Microbiology Applied Science. 2015;4(6): 870-877.

Moraditochaee M, Motamed MK, Azarpour E, Khosravi Danesh R. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density management in corn farming. ARPN J of Agric. and Biol. Sci. 2012;7:133-137.

Belay MK. Effect of inter and intra row spacing on growth, yield components and yield of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) varieties at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2019;10:1548-1564.

Eskandarnejad S, Khorasan K, Bakhtiari S, Heidarian RA. Effect of row spacing and plant density on yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) varieties. Adv. Crop Sci. 2013;3:81-88.

Iptas S, Acar AA. Effects of hybrid and row spacing on maize forage yield and quality. Plant, Soil and Environment. 2006;52:515-522.

Ijaz M, Sammar Raza MA, Sajid A, Kamran G, Tauqeer AY, Muhammad S, Muhammad N. Differential planting density influences growth and yield of hybrid maize. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 2015;2:3.

Amin F, Meysam M. Effect of plant density to yield and yield components of maize cultivars. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences. 2014;3: 123-127.

Norwood C. Dryland corn in western Kansas: Effect of hybrid maturity, planting date and plant population. Agronomy Journal. 2001;93:540-547.