Morpho-Physiological Responses of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation under Drought Stress

Main Article Content

Okon, Okon Godwin
Uyon, Peter Paul
Nyahette, Enobong Monday


Aims: To assess the potential impacts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (G. geosporum) inoculation on the survival of A. esculentus under drought stress.

Study Design: This experiment was set up in a completely randomized design (CRD) with all treatments replicated thrice. This gave a total of 7 treatments, 21 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental soil used for this study was collected from the Botanical Garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ritman University (Latitude 5º11’44ºN and Longitude 7º42’12ºE), Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. All analysis was carried out in Soil Science Laboratory and Botany Laboratory, Akwa Ibom State University, between January and march 2019.

Methodology: Soil samples were analyzed following the standard procedures outlined for wet acid digestions. Growth parameters were determined using standard methods. At Leaf chlorophyll meter was employed in the assessment of the photosynthetic pigments of the experimental plant. Biomass yield were calculated using standard formulas.

Results: The physicochemical analysis of the experimental soil used in this study revealed the physical and chemical properties of the soil; pH (6.12), EC (0.06dS/m), organic matter (2.90%), Av. P (44.62 mg/kg) and textural class of the soil was described as loamy sandy soil. Shoot length, petiole length, internode length, number of leaves and leaf area as well as the total photosynthetic pigments (TPP) contents of A. esculentus were significantly (P =.05) reduced (from 38.77±3.01 mg/kg to 29.83±1.89 mg/kg) by drought stress. There was also significantly (P = .05) reduction in N, P, K, Ca and Mg composition of A. esculentus as well as its biomass yield. However, the inoculation of A. esculentus roots with AMF (G. geosporum) in this study through several morphological and physiological processes exhibited remarkable improvement in growth morphology, total photosynthetic pigments, macronutrients composition as well as biomass yield.

Conclusion: The results of this work have shown that AMF can enhance the ability of A. esculentus to resist drought stress possibly through some morphological and physiological changes which improves water and nutrients uptake.

Abelmoschus esculentus, drought, fungus, Glomus geosporum, mycorrhiza, stress

Article Details

How to Cite
Godwin, O. O., Paul, U. P., & Monday, N. E. (2019). Morpho-Physiological Responses of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation under Drought Stress. Asian Plant Research Journal, 3(1), 1-8.
Original Research Article


Calvo-Polanco M, Sánchez-Romera B, Aroca R, et al. Exploring the use of recombinant inbred lines in combination with beneficial microbial inoculants (AM fungus and PGPR) to improve drought stress tolerance in tomato. Environ Exp Bot. 2016;131:47–57.

Kolenc Z, Vodnik D, Mandelc S, et al. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) response mechanisms in drought stress: proteomic analysis with physiology. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2016;105:67–78.

Kaushai M, Wani SP. Rhizobacterial-plant interactions: Strategies ensuring plant growth promotion under drought and salinity stress. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2016;231:68–78.

Khoyerdi FF, Shamshiri MH, Estaji A. Changes in some physiological and osmotic parameters of several pistachio genotypes under drought stress. Sci Hortic. 2016;198:44–51.

Brady NC, Weil RR. The nature and properties of soils. 11th Edition. Prentice Hall International, Inc; 1996.

Straub D. A hot issue-chicken manure. Tilth producers quarterly. A Journal of Organic and Sustainable Agriculture; 1977.

Augé RM. Water relations, drought and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza. 2001;11:3–42.

Manoharan PT, Shanmugaiah V, Balasubramanian N, et al. Influence of AM fungi on the growth and physiological status of Erythrina variegata Linn. Grown under different water stress conditions. Eur J Soil Biol. 2010;46:151–156.

Villasenor IM, Bartolome ALO. Microbiological and pharamcological studies on extracts of Cucurbita maxima. Phytotherapy Research. 1995;9(5):376- 378.

AKSG. Geography and location about Akwa Ibom State.
(Retrieved on 27th January 2017)

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official methods of analysis. 10th and 17th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D. C. 2005;98.

He X, Zhao J, Li S. Effects of water stress and VA mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of mung bean. Acta Agric Nudeatae Sin 1999;14:290–294.

Sánchez-Díaz M, Honrubia M. Water relations and alleviation of drought stress in mycorrhizal plants. In: Gianinazzi S, Schüepp H (eds) impact of arbuscular mycorrhizas on sustainable agriculture and natural ecosystems. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel. 1994;167–178.

Zou YN, Wu QS, Huang YM, et al. Mycorrhizal-mediated lower proline accumulation in Poncirus trifoliata under water deficit derives from the integration of inhibition of proline synthesis with increase of proline degradation. PLoS One 2013;8: e80568.

Fitter AH. Water relations of red clover Trifolium pratense L. as affected by VA mycorrhizal infection and phosphorus supply before and during drought. J Exp Bot. 1988;39:595–603.

Yano-Melo AM, Saggin OJ, Lima JM, et al. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets. Mycorrhiza. 1999;9:119–123.

Liu J, Guo C, Chen ZL, et al. Mycorrhizal inoculation modulates root morphology and root phytohormone responses in trifoliate orange under drought stress. Emirates J Food Agric. 2016;28: 251–256.

Comas LH, Becker SR, Von Mark VC, et al. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought. Front Plant Sci. 2013;4:442.