Lemna sp. as a Chromium Heavy Metal Phytoremediator on Tannery Wastewater and its Potential Use as Fish Feed

Main Article Content

Inggia P. Pamungkas
Yuli Andriani
Junianto .
Iskandar .


Aims: This research aims to determine the ability of Lemna sp. as a phytoremediation agent in absorbing chromium (Cr) in tannery wastewater.

Study Design:  A total of 20 fiber tubs with size 80 x 80 x 40 cm3 and volume of 256 L were prepared and filled with 30 L each of the tannery wastewater and 1.75% bio-slurry added with a volume of wastewater as a source of nutrition for Lemna sp.. The number of Lemna sp. which is used for culture was 180 g for each fiber tube.

Place and Duration of Study: Culturing Lemna sp. in tannery wastewater were carried out in Ciparanje Land Fisheries Area of ​​the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Universitas Padjadjaran and for chromium analysis were carried out in Center for Natural Resources and Environment Research of Universitas Padjadjaran, between February and March 2019.

Methodology: This research was carried out by culturing Lemna sp. in tannery wastewater for five days with 20 replications and comparing Cr concentrations in tannery wastewater and Lemna sp. at the end and beginning of the research. Chromium analysis results on the tannery wastewater and Lemna sp. the beginning and end of the research on each sample was tested by paired t-test.

Results: by culturing Lemna sp. in the tannery wastewater as phytoremediation agent for five days the results obtained Cr concentration at the beginning of research each for tannery wastewater and Lemna sp. ranged from 0.180 to 0.194 mg/L with an average of 0.187±0.0034 mg/L and 0 mg/kg. While at the end of the research the concentration of Cr in tannery wastewater and Lemna sp. respectively ranged from 0.057-0.075 mg/L with an average of 0.068±0.0044 mg/L and 2.292-2.333 mg/kg with an average of 2.314±0.0101 mg/kg. There was a decrease in Cr concentration by an average of 64.01±1.96% in tannery wastewater and an increase in Lemna sp.. Paired t-test results showed that Lemna sp. which was cultured in tannery wastewater had a significant influence on Cr concentrations in both tannery wastewater and Lemna sp so that there were significant differences in Cr concentrations at the beginning (day 0) and at the end of the research (day 5).

Conclusion: Average ability of Lemna sp. in absorbing and accumulating chromium in the tannery wastewater in the tissue was 2.314±0.0101 mg/kg and the average reduction in Cr concentration in liquid waste was 64.01±1.96%. Utilization of Lemna sp. containing chromium is possible to be used as a food supplement for fish to increase growth due to reduced Cr toxicity by Lemna sp.

Chromium, Lemna sp, phytoremediation, tannery wastewater.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pamungkas, I., Andriani, Y., ., J., & ., I. (2019). Lemna sp. as a Chromium Heavy Metal Phytoremediator on Tannery Wastewater and its Potential Use as Fish Feed. Asian Plant Research Journal, 3(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2019/v3i130057
Original Research Article


Moelyo. Pengkajian evektifitas proses koagulasi dalam memperbaiki Kualitas Limbah industri penyamakan kulit-Sukaregang, Garut. Journal Teknik Hidraulik. 2012;3(2):169-182.

Bala R, Thukral AK. Phytoremediation of Cr (VI) by Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) schleiden employing reducing and chelating agents. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2011;13(5):465-491.

Bertani R, Biasin A, Canu P, Della ZM, Refosco D, Simionato F, Zerlottin M. Self-heating of dried industrial tannery wastewater sludge induced by pyrophoric iron sulfides formation. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2016;305:105-114.

Kalidhasan S, Santhana KKA, Rajesh V, Rajesh N. The journey traversed in The remediation of hexavalent chromium and the road ahead toward greener alternatives -A perspective. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 2016;317:157-166.

Mayasari HE, Sholeh M. Chrome adsorption in tannery wastewater - A review. Journal Kimia Mulawarman. 2016; 13(2):50-56.

Sumiahadi A, Acar R. A review of phytoremediation technology: Heavy metals uptake by plants. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2018; 142:1-9.

Lasindrang M, Suwarno, Hadisusanto, Tandjung SD, Nitisastro KH. Adsorpsi pencemaran Limbah Cair industri penyamakan kulit oleh kitosan yang melapisi arang aktif tempurung kelapa. Journal Teknosains. 2014;3(2):81-166.

Ahamed MIN, Chandrasekaran N, Mukherjee A. Biochemical analysis of tannery effluent. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;6(7):644-645.

Dargo H, Adhena A. Tannery waste water treatment: A review. IJETST. 2014;1(9): 1488-1494.

Akpor OB, Muchie M. Remediation of heavy metals in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems: Processes and applications. International Journal of the Physical Sciences. 2010;5(12):1807-1817.

Aisien FA, Faleye O, Aisien ET. Phytoremediation of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Leonardo Journal of Sciences. 2010;17:37-46.

Thayaparan M, Iqbal SS, Iqbal MCM. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor for removal of Cr (VI) in aqueous solution at the optimum nutrient strength. OUSL Journal. 2015;9:97-111.

Kamel AK. Phytoremediation potentiality of aquatic macrophytes in heavy metal contaminated water of El–Temsah Lake, Ismailia, Egypt. Middle–East Journal of Scientific Research. 2013;14(12):1555-1568.

Rakhshaee R, Giahi M, Pourahmad A. Studying effect of cell wall’s carboxyl–carboxylate ratio change of Lemna minor to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2009;163(1):165-173.

Khellaf N, Zerdaoui M. Growth, photosynthesis and respiratory response to copper in Lemna minor: A potential use of Duckweed in biomonitoring. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2010;7(2):299-306.

Shun-Xing L, Feng-Ying Z, Yang H, Jian-Cong N. Thorough removal of inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Lemna minor powder. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2011;186(1):423-429.

Uysal Y. Removal of chromium Ions from wastewater by Duckweed, Lemna minor L. by using a pilot system with continuous flow. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2013;263(2):486-492.

Chakraborty R, Muherjee S, Kumar S. Screening of few aquatic floating plants for chromium phytoremediation. Int. J. Environmental Technology and Management. 2014;17(2/3/4):191-198.

Bokhari SH, Ahmad I, Mahmood-Ul-Hassan M, Mohammad A. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor L. for heavy metals. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2016;18(1):25-32.

Shanker AK, Carlos C, Herminia LT, Avudainayagam S. Chromium toxicity in plants. Environment International. 2005; 31:739-753.

Matveyeva N, Dupliy V. The development of biotechnology for water purification from toxic hexavalent chromium by Duckweed plants (Lemna minor L.). In: Sofia (Ed.), third national conference with international participation and youth scientific session. Ecological Engineering and Environment Protection (EEEP'2015). 2013;13-14:79-81.

Matveyeva N, Dupliy V, Panov VO. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Duckweed (Lemna minor) in in vitro culture. Hydrobiological Journal. 2013; 49(3):58-67.

Cheng JJ, Stomp AM. Growing Duckweed to recover nutrients from wastewaters and for production of fuel ethanol and Animal Feed. Clean. 2009;37(1):17-26.

Rostika R, Andriani Y, Abram AH, Vinasyiam A. The growth rate of nile tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus fry fed on fermented Lemna sp. Meal. Journal Akuakultur Indonesia. 2017;16(1):101-106.

Andriani Y, Mulyani Y, Zidni I, Sadri MY, Wicaksono PN. Effect of proteolytic plant-derived enzyme on gourami (Osphronemus goramy Lac.) growth rate. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 2018;41(2): 897-906.

Chakrabarti R, Clark WD, Sharma JG, Goswami RK, Shrivastav RK, Tocher DR. Mass production of Lemna minor and its amino acid and fatty 1 acid profiles. Frontiers in Chemistry. 2018;6(479):1-35.

Baruna B. Optimasi Konsentrasi Bio-slurry terhadap produktivitas Lemna minor sebagai pakan ikan herbivora. Skripsi [Unpublished data]. Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Universitas Pdjadjaran; 2016.

Kristianto AI, Hartini S. Pengaruh padat populasi gulma mata ikan Lemna perpusilla L. dalam proses penyerapan total Cr dan Cd2+ dari Limbah Industri tekstil. Seminar Nasional Kimia dan Pendidikan Kimia V, Surakarta. 2013;294-301.

Standar nasional Indonesia. Air dan air limbah – Bagian 17: Cara uji krom total (Cr-T) Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom (SSA) – nyala. Badan Standar Nasional Indonesia. SNI 6989. 2009;17.

Wu C, Zhang W, Liao X, Zeng Y, Shi B. Transposition of chrome tanning in leather making. Journal of the American Leather Chemist Association. 2014;109(6):176-183.

Giacinta M, Salimin Z, Junaidi J. Pengolahan logam berat krom (Cr) pada Limbah Cair Industri Penyamakan Kulit dengan Proses Koagulasi dan Presipitasi. Journal Teknik Lingkungan. 2013;2(2):1-8.

Nurfitriyani A, Wardhani E, Dirgawati M. Penentuan efisiensi penyisihan kromium heksavalen (Cr6+) dengan adsorpsi menggunakan tempurung kelapa secara kontinyu. Reka Lingkungan. 2014;1(2):1-12.

Radić S, Stipanićev D, Cvjetko P, Mikelić IL, Rajčić MM, Širac S, Pevalek-Kozlina B, Pavlica M. Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluent using Duckweed. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19(1): 216222.

Jomova K, Valko M. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Toxicology. 2011;283:65–87.

Hossain MA, Piyatida P, Teixeira da Silva JA, Fujita M. Molecular mechanism of heavy metal toxicity and tolerance in plants: Central role of glutathione in detoxification of reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal in heavy metal chelation. Journal of Botany. 2012:1-37.

Ziegler P, Sree KS Appenroth KJ. Duckweeds for water remediation and toxicity testing. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2016;98(10): 1127-1154.

Rakhmawati, Suprayudi MA, Setiawati M, Widanarni, Junior MZ, Jusadi D, Bioefficacy of dietary chromium picolinate and chromium yeast on growth performance and blood biochemical in red tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus (Linnaeus). Aquaculture Research. 2017;1-8.

Vincent J. The biochemistry of chromium III. 2nd Ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherland. 2018;396.

Ahmed AR, Jha AN, Davies SJ. The efficacy of chromium as a growth enhancer for Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio L): An integrated study using biochemical, genetic, and histological responses. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2012;148:187-197.

Liu T, Wen H, Jiang M, Yuan D, Gao P, Zhao Y, Wu F, Liu W. Effect of dietary chromium picolinate on growth performance and blood parameters in grass carp fingerling, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 2010;36: 565-572.

Giri AK, Sahu NP, Saharan N, Dash G. Effect of dietary supplementation of chromium on growth and biochemical parameters of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) Fingerlings. Indian J. Fish. 2014;61(2):73-81.

Abeer A, Eman Z, Youssef E. Dietary supplementation of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with betaine, chromium picolinate and a combination: Effects on growth performance, hematological and biochemical parameters. Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science. 2015;2(4):98-108.

Subandiyono, Hastuti S. Trivalent chromium (Cr+3) in dietary carbohydrate and its effect on the growth of commonly cultivated Fish. Journal Teknologi. 2016; 78(4–2):233-237.